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216 terms

Med Terms Unit 4

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Acetylcholine
most common neurotransmitter
Afferent nerves
carries messaes towards the brain and spinal chord
Arachnoid membrane
middle layer of the meninges
Astrocyte
transports water and salts
Ataxia
lack of muscular coordination
Autonomic nervous system
regulates automatic functions of the body
Blood-brain barrier
regulates what can enter the brain
Cell body
central portion of the neuron
Central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
Cerebellum
portion of the brain responsible for coordinated movement
Cerebrum
largest portion of the brain
Dendrite
carries electrical messages away from the body
Dura mater
outermost layer of the meninges
Ependymal cell
lines fluid-filled areas of the brain
Ganglion
group of nerve cell bodies
Meninges
three layers of connective tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Microglial cells
breakdown of foreign material
Motor nerves
carries info away from the CNS
Myelin sheath
fatty material wrapped around the axon
Nerve
bundle of axons and dendrites
Neuroglia
supporting cells in the nervous system
Neuron
individual nerve cell
Neurotransmitter
chemical release at the synapse
Oligodendroglial cell
produces the myelin sheath
Parasympathetic nerves
regulated the body maintenance
Peripheral nervous system
everything outside the brain and spinal cord
Pia mater
innermost layer of the meninges
Sensory nerves
carry info to the CNS
Sympathetic nerves
regulates body during stress
Synapse
a junction between two neurons
Thalamus
portion of the brain responsible for sensory information and perception of pain
Ataxia
without coordination
Brainstem
structure containing the respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor centers of the brain
Cerebrospinal fluid
fluid in the subarachnoid space
Coma
statie of unconcious where they cannot be aroused
Epidural hematoma
collection of blood above the dura mater
Myelominingiocele
herniation of the nerves, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid
Neuropathy
disease of nerves
Plexus
large, interlacing network of nerves
Cerebrovascular accident
disruption of normal blood supply to the brain; a stroke
Dopamine
neurotramsitter used in the brain
Embolus
stroke due to blood clot in the BODY
Gait
manner of walking
Spina bifida
spinal column does not fuse properly
Thrombosis
stroke due to blood clot on the wall of an ARTERY
Astigmatism
ligh is not sharpley focused
Choroid
gives blood supply to the eye
Ciliary body
controls the shape of the lens
Cone
color vision
Cornea
transparent extension of thte sclera
Hyperopia
farsightedness
Iris
the colored portion of the eye
Lens
refracts light to allow for focusing
Myopia
nearsightedness
Optic nerve
carries visual information to the brain
Pupil
opening in the iris
Retina
nerve layer of the eye
Rod
black and white vision
Sclera
white outer covering of the eye
Causalgia
burning pain
Cephalalgia
head pain
Cerebral cortex
outer layer of the cerebrum
Cranial nerves
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain
Dyslexia
impaired ability to learn to read
Efferent neuron
a neuron conducting impulses away from the brain
Ecephalitis
inflammation of the brain
Gyrus
ridge on the cerebral cortex
Hemiparesis
partial paralysis of one side of the body
Neuraglia
severe sharp pain of a nerve or along the course of a nerve
Paraplegia
paralysis from the waist down
Pons
a brain structure located at the top of the brain stem that is involved in respiration, movement and sleep
Quadriplegia
paralysis from the neck down
Spinal nerves
31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
Stimulus
a signal that causes a response
Subdural hematoma
collection of blood under the dura mater
Sulcus
narrow grooves on the surface of the brain
Vagus nerve
parasympathetic nerve of the heart; activation slows heart rate
Alzheimer disease
deterioration of the brain
Demyelination
loss of the myelin sheath of a nerve
Hydrocephalus
excessive cerebrospinal fluid in the brain
Lumbar puncture
extraction of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
Accommodation
the adjustment of lens focus
Anterior chamber
fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris
Aqueous humor
fluid between the cornea and iris
Cataract
clouding of the lens due to protein deposits
Conjunctiva
the lining of the eyelids and the covering of the sclerae
Fovea centralis
area of highest cones concentration on the retina
Glaucoma
increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor
Intraocular
Pertaining to within the eye
Lacrimation
shedding tears
Nystagmus
involuntary, rapid movement of eyeball
Optic chiasm
the crossing of the optic nerves
Refraction
the bending of light
Optic disc
the point where the optic nerve enters the retina; blindspot
Visual acuity test
assessment of vision clarity
Visual field test
Measures a patients peripheral vision while the eyes are fixed straight ahead.
Vitreous humor
soft jelly like material behind the lens; maintains the shape of the eyeball
Acoustic
pertaining to hearing
Auditory canal
produces cerumen
Auricle
Flap of the ear
Cerumen
ear wax
Cochlea
contains the receptors for hearing
Deafness
partial or complete loss of hearing
Eustacian tube
equalizes pressure
Incus
anvil; middle ossicles
Ossicles
small bones of the middle ear
Pinna
external portion of the ear; funnels sound waves
Semicircular canals
responsible for equalibrium
Tympanic membrane
eardrum
Malleus
hammer; first osscile
Stapes
stirrup; last osscile
Vertigo
sensation of rotation/whirling
Articular cartilage
Covers the ends of long bones
Calcaneous
Heel bone
Carpals
bones of the wrist
Cartilage
tough, flexible connective tissue
Cervical vertebrae
7 vertebrae of the neck
Clavicle
collarbone
Coccyx
the tailbone, made up of the four fused vertebrae at the base of the spinal column
Collagen
protein substance found in skin and connective tissue
Comminuted fracture
a splintered or crushed bone
Cranial bones
bones that house the brain
Decalcification
calcium loss
Diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
Epiphyseal plate
region of cartilage that allows for growth
Epiphysis
end of a long bone
Ethmoid bone
bones located between the eyes
Facial bones
bones that form the facial features
Femur
thigh bone
Fibula
the lateral lower leg bone
Fontanelle
soft spot between the skull bones of an infant
Humerus
upper arm bone
Ilium
the upper part of the hipbone
Impacted fracture
one end of a bone is wedged into the adjoining bone
Ischium
most inferior part of hip bone
Kyphosis
Humpback
Lacrimal bones
paired bones at the corner of each eye
Lordosis
forward curvature of the lumbar spine
Lumbar vertebrae
The five vertebrae in the lower back
Mandible
lower jaw bone
Metacarpals
palm
Metatarsals
forms sole of the foot
Ossification
bone formation
Osteoblast
cells that make bone
Osteoclast
cells that break down bone
Osteomalacia
softening of bone
Osteoporosis
condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle and liable to fracture
Patella
Knee Cap
Phalanges
digits; fingers and toes
Pubis
Middle portion of the hipbone
Radius
lateral forearm bone
Red bone marrow
produces blood cells
Reduction
correcting a fracture by realigning the bone pieces
Ribs
The bones in the chest that protect the heart and lungs.
Sacral vertebrae
5 vertebrae which are fused to form the sacrum in the pelvis
Scapula
Shoulder Blade
Scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
Sternum
breast bone
Suture
immovable joint between bones (of the skull)
Tarsals
Ankle Bones
Thoracic vertebrae
The twelve vertebrae which supports the chest
Tibia
medial lower leg bone
Ulna
medial forearm bone
Vertebrae
backbone
Yellow bone marrow
fat
Abduction
Movement away from the body
Adduction
movement toward the body
Articulation
Joint
Atrophy
a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse
Carpal tunnel syndrome
pain in carpals caused by compression of median nerve
Dislocation
displacement of a bone from its joint
Dorsiflexion
bending up of toes towards knees
Extension
straightening a joint
Flexion
act of bending a joint
Hypertrophy
abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ
Ligament
Connects bone to bone
Myopathy
disease of the muscle
Plantar flexion
pointing toes
Pronation
Turning the palm backward
Rotation
Turning a body part on its own axis
Supination
turning the palm upward
Sprain
Stretching of ligaments
Strain
injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse)
Striated muscle
muscle attached to the skeleton, making movement possible
Synovial fluid
fluid in joints
Adipose
fatty tissue
Albinism
Absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
Alopecia
hair loss
Basal layer
bottom layer of the epidermis when skins cells divide
Dermis
Middle layer of skin
Epidermis
superficial layer of skin
Hair follicle
Sac within which each hair grows
Integumentary system
the organ system that forms a protective covering on the outside of the body
Keratin
protein that makes the skin water-resistant
Lipocyte
Fat cell
Melanin
cell that causes pigmentation, a pigment that gives the skin its color
Melanocyte
pigment in the skin
Sebaceous gland
gland that secretes sebum
Sebum
the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands
Subcutaneous layer
deepest layer of the skin
Crust
collection of dried serum and cellular debris
Stratum corneum
top layer of the epidermis
Cyst
sac containing fluid
Erosion
gradual wearing away of the epidermis
Fissure
groove or crack-like sore
Macule
flat, discolored lesion
Nodule
round, elevated lesion less than 1 cm
Papule
round, elevated lesion more than 1 cm
Polyp
growth or mass on a mucous membrane
Pustule
small elevation of the skin containing pus
Ulcer
open sore
Vesicle
small collection of fluid
Wheal
slightly swollen area (usually red)
Auditory meatus
opening to the auditory canal
Axon
carries electrical messages to the body