Psych Intro and Methods Unit 1


Terms in this set (...)

survey method involves...
careful questioning of a representative sample of people.
an observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed
Gestalt Psychology
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
observer effect
tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
psychoanalytic psychology
study of the unconscious, includes childhood and aggression issues
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
negative correlation
as one variable increases, the other decreases
independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
The placebo effect refers to
the beneficial consequences of merely expecting that a treatment will be effective
experimental method
A method of investigation used to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor.
humanistic theories
view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth
psycholdynamic perspective
theoretical views emphasizing that personality is primarily unconscious (beyond awareness)
case study limitations result from having no...
control group
case study
study of one individual in great detail
correlational studies
determine if there is a relationship between two variables - NOT CAUSATION!
dependent variable
The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested.
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
representative sample
randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects
Functional Psychology
thoughts and behaviors are understood as adaptations to the environment. they evolve
Self-fullfilling prophecies
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
positive correlation
a relationship between two variables in which both variables either increase or decrease together
extraneous variable
any aspect of the experimental setting that must be held constant to prevent unplanned environmental variation
Why questions in Psychology refer to which of the four goals of psychology?
understanding or explaining for behavior
B.F. Skinner
Behaviorist that developed the theory of operant conditioning by training pigeons and rats
John. B Watson
developed the psychological school of thought called Behaviorism
William James
developed the psychological school of thought called Functionalism
Wilhelm Wundt
father of psychology, Structuralism, objective sensations and subject feelings guided his research
controlled experiment
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same
social learning theory
we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
Wilhelm Wundt
He helped found ideas for structuralism, early Psychological thought based on introspection
Psychiatrist differ from psychologist in that they
can prescribe drugs in all 50 states.