Which groups of people made up those called the Progressives?
1. Middle-class reformers (complaining) 2. Journalists (writing about the complaints) 3. Intellectuals (doing some thing about it)
What were the 4 goals of the Progressives?
1. Protect social welfare (edu. + hospitals + parks) 2. Promote moral improvement (prohibition) 3. Create economic reform (progressive movement) 4. Foster efficiency (broke down tasks + 10hr. workday)
What organizations during the Progressive Era sought to improve the social welfare of Americans? What did each group do to advance social welfare efforts?
*YMCA - Young Men's Christian Association -Provided education with libraries and classes -Provided recreation with pools and sports courts *YWCA - Young Women's Christian Association *Salvation Army -Fed the poor -Cared for children -Assisted poor immigrants
Who led the fight to improve the lives of women and children and helped pass the Illinois Factory Act of 1893?
What did the Illinois Factory Act of 1893 do?
Prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours
What movement sought to ban alcoholic beverage sales?
What belief motivated supporters of Prohibition?
They believed that alcohol broke down morality and harmed society
What organization led by Frances Willard urged saloon owners to stop selling alcohol?
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
What actions did the WCTU take?
They entered saloons, singing, praying, and urging saloon keepers to stop selling alcohol
What led to the notoriety of Carry Nation?
She was known for vandalizing bars with a hatchet
Why did some many women support the expanded role of women in public life?
They viewed it as a way of justifying their claimes to the right to vote
What problems rose out of the prohibition movement?
Immigrants rejected the movement because it clashed with their culture and saloon business
What economic alternative advocated by Eugene Debs gaining popularity flowing the Depression of 1893?
What criticism of big business did many Progressives share with Debs?
They felt big business received unfair favoritism from the government which allowed it to limit competition
Who was the famous muckraker that attacked the business practices of the Standard Oil Company?
What argument style did Louis D. Brandeis develop that would be used successfully to win reform litigation?
He used data produced by social scientists to show the effect of various practices on the individual and society; known as the "Brandeis brief"
What was scientific management as developed by Frederick Taylor?
Breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts to improve efficiency
What was the effect of scientific management as it was developed by Frederick Taylor?
Businesses pushed their employees to work ever more demanding tasks until they were worn out by fatigue
What were the pitfalls of the scientific management method?
Assembly line production was so fast paced it led to burnout and high turnover rates
How did Henry Ford fight the pitfalls of scientific management?
He reduced working hours and raised pay to $5/day but workers had to work extremely hard to earn the money
What problems plagued governments at the start of the Progressive Era?
Political machines ran cities and rewarded supporters with jobs and kickbacks in exchange for votes, favors, and bribes
Why was the commission style of government found to be favorable?
It appointed experts to various tasks who were better trained to get work and reforms done
Why did some cities choose to have a council-manager system of government?
The people could elect the city council members to make laws and allow the council to hire a well trained person to run the operations of the city
Who was the Wisconsin governor & senator who cleaned up government by more strictly regulating the railroads?
Robert La Follette
Why did reformers seek to end child labor?
Children were more prone to accidents caused by fatigue; developed serious health problems; and suffered from stunted growth
How did the National Child Labor Committee go about getting the Keating-Owen Act (1916) passed to ban the transport across state lines of good made with child labor?
They organized their research into photographs & statistics to plead their case to unions and politicians
Why did the Supreme Court declare the Keating-Owen Act unconstitutional?
Due to the fact that it interfered in a state's right to regulate labor within its borders
What election reforms were passed during the Progressive Era?
Initiative - bill sponsored by the people Referendum - vote on a bill by the people Recall - early removal of an elected official from office by the people Direct Primary - allowed all political party members to vote for candidates to square off in the general election
Which Amendment required states to allow citizens to directly elect their senators?