112 terms

soc chp4-8 exam

Social interaction
________ is/are the process(es) by which people act toward or respond to other people and is the foundation for all relationships and groups in society.
Social structure
________ is the complex framework of societal institutions (such as the economy, politics, and religion) and the social practices (such as rules and social roles) that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people's behavior.
At the ________, the social structure of a society has several essential elements: social institutions, groups, statuses, roles, and norms.
________ theorists emphasize that social structure is essential because it creates order and predictability in a society. Social structure is also important for our human development.
Social structure consists of all except:

a. values.

b. status and roles.

c. groups and their relationships.

d. institutions.
status set
To determine who you are, you must think about your social identity, which is derived from the statuses you occupy and is based on your ________. It comprises all the statuses that a person occupies at a given time.
A ________ is a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
role expectations
Some statuses have ________ that are highly specific, such as that of surgeons or college professors, other statuses, such as friend or significant other, are less-structured.
role strain
Jack is a freshman at the local college. As a student, he is feeling pressure. He wants to party like the rest of his fraternity brothers, while at the same time, he wants to maintain his 4.0 grade point average. Sociologists would say that Jack is experiencing ________.
role strain
Jack is a freshman at the local college. As a student, he is feeling pressure. He wants to party like the rest of his fraternity brothers, while at the same time, he wants to maintain his 4.0 grade point average. Sociologists would say that Jack is experiencing ________.
primary group
________ include our family, close friends, and school- or work-related peer groups.
Schools, churches, and corporations are examples of ________ groups.
The ________ theorists do not believe that social institutions work for the common good of everyone in society. For example, the homeless lack the power and resources to promote their own interests when they are opposed by dominant social groups.
social solidarity
Based on sociologist Emile Durkheim's viewpoint, ________ derives from a society's social structure, which, in turn, is based on the society's division of labor. This division of labor refers to how the various tasks of a society are divided up and performed.
In ________ societies, a large proportion of the population lives in or near cities. Large corporations and government bureaucracies grow in size and complexity. The nature of social life changes as people come to know one another more as statuses than as individuals.
postindustrial societies
________ are characterized by an information explosion and an economy in which large numbers of people either provide or apply information or are employed in service jobs (such as a fast-food server or a health care worker).
civil inattention
Sociologist Erving Goffman's term ________ refers to the ways in which an individual shows awareness that another is present without making this person the object of particular attention.
self fulfilling prophecy
Suppose that a person is told repeatedly that she or he is not a good student. Eventually, this person might come to believe it to be true, stop studying, and receive failing grades. This scenario exemplifies a ________.
Harold Garfinkel
_____ ,a sociologist, initiated the ethnomethodology approach because he was critical of mainstream sociology for not recognizing the ongoing ways in which people create reality and produce their own world?
front stage
Sociologist Erving Goffman used the term ________ in referring to the area where a player performs a specific role before an audience.
feeling rules
Sociologist Arlie Hochschild suggests that we acquire a set of ________ that shape the appropriate emotions for a given role or specific situation, including how, where, when, and with whom an emotion should be expressed.
emotional labor
With ________, employees must display only certain carefully selected feelings. For example, bill collectors are encouraged to show anger and make threats to customers, thereby supposedly deflating the customers' status and wearing down their presumed resistance to paying past-due bills.
social group
A(n) ________ is a collection of two or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging, and have a feeling of interdependence.
A(n) ________ is a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common.
primary group
Sociologist Charles H. Cooley used the term ________ to describe a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time.
In discussing primary and secondary groups, the text points out that:

a. there are no significant others in secondary groups.

b. some of the people in a secondary group may eventually form a primary group.

c. formal organizations are secondary groups and have no primary groups within them.

d. all secondary groups are approximately the same size.
A(n) ________ is a group to which a person does not belong and toward which the person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility.
consciousness of kind
What is the term used by sociologists to describe the awareness that individuals may have when they believe that they share commonalities with certain others?
closed relationships
Max Weber discussed the kind of setting or situation where the participation of others is excluded, limited, or subject to conditions. Weber termed this:
conflict theorists
________ suggest that groups involve a series of power relationships whereby the needs of individual members may not be equally served.
symbolic interactionists
________ focus on how the size of the group influences the kind of behaviors that take place among members.
In a(n) ________, which is a group composed of two members, the active participation of both members is crucial for the group's survival. If one member withdraws from interaction, the group ceases to exist.
Leadership in secondary groups (such as colleges, governmental agencies, and corporations) involves ________, with written responsibilities assigned to each position in the organizational structure.

a. an informal hierarchy

b. a clearly defined chain of command

c. a strong personality

d. a friendly orientation
Jane is a member of a group that is developing a questionnaire as a group project in her sociology class. Whenever they meet, Jane finds that the other group members are easily sidetracked and she is always trying to keep the group focused on developing the questionnaire together. Jane would be considered the ________ leader of the group.
Three major styles of leadership exist in groups. Which of the following is not one of them?

a. authoritarian

b. laissez-faire

c. cooperative

d. democratic
In a disaster like Hurricane Katrina, a(n) ________ leadership style has proven to be most effective.
________ is the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group.
________ is the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise.
A ________ organization is a highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner.
The ________ model of organization is the most universal organizational form in government, business, education, and religion.
According to sociologist Max Weber, ________ is the process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules and procedures.
goal displacement
________ occurs when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizational survival becomes more important than achievement of goals.
Resistance to change may also lead to ________. Bureaucracies tend to promote people from within the organization. Eventually, people reach a level that is beyond their knowledge, experience, and capabilities.
iron law of oligarchy
According to political sociologist Robert Michels, all organizations encounter the ________, which is the tendency to become a bureaucracy ruled by the few. His central idea was that those who control bureaucracies not only wield power but also have an interest in retaining their power.
Organizational theorists have suggested a ________ model for corporations in which both hierarchy and functional or departmental boundaries would largely be eliminated.
________ is any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs.
juvenile delinquency
________ refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense (such as cutting school or running away from home) by young people.
Sociologist Robert Merton identified five ways in which people adapt to cultural goals and approved ways of achieving them. In addition to conformity, Merton classified the remaining four types of adaptation as deviance. Which of the following was not a type of adaptation identified?

a. retreatism

b. innovation

c. inoculation

d. ritualism
According to sociologist Robert Merton's strain theory, ________ occurs when people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them and advocate an alternative set of goals or means.
conflict gangs
Members of ________ seek to acquire a "rep" (reputation) by fighting over "turf" (territory) and adopting a value system of toughness, courage, and similar qualities.
conflict theorists
________ who focus on power relations in society suggest that the lifestyles considered deviant by political and economic elites are often defined as illegal. According to this approach, norms and laws are established for the benefit of those in power and do not reflect any absolute standard of right and wrong.
Prostitution might be explained as a reflection of society's double standard, whereby it is acceptable for a man to pay for sex but unacceptable for a woman to accept money for such services. This explanation reflects a ________ feminist approach.
symbolic interactionists
________ focus on social processes, such as how people develop a self-concept and learn conforming behavior through socialization. According to this approach, deviance is learned in the same way as conformity - through engagement with others.
social bond
Sociologist Travis Hirschi's ________ theory holds that the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person's ties to society are weakened or broken.
Based on the symbolic interaction theory of sociologists Charles H. Cooley and George H. Mead, the ________ theory states that deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants, and they, in turn, come to accept the marker placed upon them and begin to act accordingly.
tertiary stage
John is a drug addict who believes that using marijuana or other illegal drugs is no more deviant than drinking alcoholic beverages and therefore should not be stigmatized. John would be in the ________ of labeling.
postmodern theorists
Some ________ emphasize that the study of deviance reveals how the powerful exert authority over the powerless by taking away their free will to think and act as they might choose.
uniform crime report (UCR)
The ________ is the major source of information on crimes reported in the United States. It has been compiled since 1930 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation based on information filed by law enforcement agencies throughout the country.
________ crimes include robbery, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson. In most of these crimes, the primary motive is to obtain money or some other desired valuable.
Four types of political deviance have been attributed to some government officials. Which of the following is not a type identified?

a. Illegal wiretapping.

b. Secrecy and deception designed to manipulate public opinion.

c. Prosecution of individuals due to their political activities.

d. Abuse of power
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) was developed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics as an alternate means of collecting crime statistics. The most recent (NCVS) indicates that ________ percent of all property crimes are not reported to the police and are thus not reflected.
________ is the calculated, unlawful use of physical force or threats of violence against persons or property in order to intimidate or coerce a government, organization, or individual for the purpose of gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective.
Of all factors associated with crime, the age of the offender is one of the most significant. Arrest rates for violent crime and property crime are highest for people between the ages of ________.
________ is any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed.
________ seeks to return offenders to the community as law-abiding citizens by providing therapy or vocational or educational training. Offenders are treated, not punished, so that they will not continue their criminal activity.
mandatory sentencing
________ guidelines are established by law and require that a person convicted of a specific offense or series of offenses be given a penalty within a fixed range.
________ crime is defined as the networking of powerful criminal organizations and their associates in shared activities around the world.
social stratification
________ is the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on the control over basic resources.
social mobility
________ is the movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another. This movement can be either upward or downward.
caste system
A ________ is a system of social inequality in which people's status is permanently determined at birth based on their parent's ascribed status. It is a closed system of stratification.
The ________ system is a type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work people do.
vertical mobility
________ occurs when people experience movement either up or down the class structure.
According to sociologist Karl Marx, continual exploitation results in workers' ________ - a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself. It develops as workers manufacture goods that embody their creative talents, but the goods do not belong to them.
middle class
Sociologist Max Weber divided those who work for wages into two classes. The ________ consists of white-collar workers, public officials, managers, and professionals.
Based on sociologist Max Weber's system of stratification, ________ is the respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others. It includes fame, respect, honor, and esteem.
Sociologists Dennis Gilbert and Joseph Kahl expanded on Weber's analysis of class structure. Which of the following elements was not identified by their social class model?

a. occupation of family head

b. education

c. family income

d. the family's reputation in the community
working poor
According to the social class model developed by sociologists Dennis Gilbert and Joseph Kahl, members of the ________ (about 20 percent of the U.S. population) live from just above to just below the poverty line. They typically hold unskilled jobs, seasonal migrant jobs in agriculture, lower-paid factory jobs, and service jobs (such as counter help at restaurants).
Contemporary Marxian (or conflict) theorists would examine class in terms of:

a. a multidimensional approach of wealth, prestige and power.

b. people's relationship with others in the production process.

c. wealth inequality.

d. the ownership or nonownership of the means of production.
________ include(s) property such as buildings, land, farms, houses, factories, and cars, as well as other assets such as bank accounts, corporate stocks, bonds, and insurance policies. It is computed by subtracting all debt obligations and converting the remaining assets into cash.
For many of the working poor, medical insurance is out of the question. Approximately ________ million people in the United States were without health insurance coverage in 2006.
Of all age groups, persons aged ________ are the most likely to be uninsured.
________ theorists stress that schools are agencies for reproducing the capitalist class system and perpetuating inequality in society. Parents with limited income are not able to provide the same educational opportunities for their children as are families with greater financial resources.
absolute poverty
________ often has life-threatening consequences, such as when a homeless person freezes to death on a park bench.
the feminization of poverty
According to sociologist Diana Pearce, ________ refers to the trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty.
Social inequality and poverty have both economic and structural sources. According to your text, the major cause of poverty is:

a. people's unwillingness to work.

b. governmental programs, such as welfare, that have kept families impoverished for generations.

c. the low wages paid for many jobs.

d. people's desire for immediate gratification and overuse of credit cards.
job deskilling
________ refers to a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job, often a result of the introduction of computers and other technology.
According to the ________, stratification exists in all societies and some inequality is not only inevitable but also necessary for the ongoing functioning of society.
conflict perspective
According to the ________, core values in the United States emphasize the importance of material possessions, hard work, individual initiative to get ahead, and behavior that supports the existing social structure. These same values support the prevailing resource distribution system and contribute to social inequality.
Based on in-depth interviews and participant observation, sociologist Judith Rollins examined rituals of ________ that were often demanded by elite white women of their domestic workers, who were frequently women of color.
A food company has contributed thousands of pounds of food to the hungry. However, much of the food was tainted and caused illness. Under federal law:

a. the company can be held legally liable.

b. the company is exempt under the Good Samaritan law.

c. the state where the company is located can determine what to do.

d. the company is subject to a fine of at least $1 million.
The income gap between the richest and the poorest 20 percent of the world population:

a. is beginning to decline.

b. has significantly decreased.

c. continues to widen.

d. is greater in urban than in rural areas.
high income countries
________ are nations characterized by highly industrialized economies; technologically advanced industrial, administrative, and service occupations; and relatively high levels of national and per capita income.
middle income countries
________ are nations with industrializing economies, particularly in urban areas, and moderate levels of national and personal income.
________ has become the primary means used in attempts to reduce social and economic inequalities and alleviate the worst effects of poverty in the less industrialized nations of the world.
one billion
Approximately ________ people worldwide live on less than $1 per day.
three worlds approach
The ________ was introduced by social analysts to distinguish among nations on the basis of their levels of economic development and the standard of living of their citizens.
standard of living
An increase in the ________ means that a nation is moving toward economic development, which typically includes the improved exploitation of natural resources by industrial development.
The World Bank focuses on these three development themes in classifying nations into economic categories: ________.

a. people, the economy, and health care

b. people, the environment, and health care

c. people, the economy, and political stability

d. people, the environment, and the economy
capital flight
________ is the movement of jobs and economic resources from one nation to another.
________ is the closing of plants and factories because of their obsolescence or the fact that workers in other nations are being hired to do the work more cheaply.
relative poverty
________ exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
________ poverty would be measured by comparing the actual income against the income earner's expectations and perceptions.
human development index (HDI)
In 1990, the United Nations introduced the ________, establishing three new criteria, in addition to the gross domestic product, for measuring the level of advancement in a country: life expectancy, education, and living standards.
infant mortality rate
The ________ (deaths per thousand live births) is more than eight times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries.
The adult literacy rate in the low-income countries is about half that of the high-income countries. ________ constitute about two-thirds of those who are illiterate in the low-income countries.
According to some social scientists, global wealth and poverty are linked to the level of ________ and economic development in a given society. It almost inevitably brings with it a higher standard of living in a nation and some degree of social mobility for individual participants in the society.
modernization theory
According to ________, the low-income, less-developed nations can improve their standard of living only with a period of intensive economic growth and accompanying changes in people's beliefs, values, and attitudes toward work.
According to economic advisor Walt Rostow, societies in the ________ stage are slow to change because the people hold a fatalistic value system, do not subscribe to the work ethic, and save very little money.
In relation to economic inequality, the dependency theory, world systems theory, and the new international division of labor theory are perspectives rooted in the ________ approach.
dependency theory
According to the ________, poorer nations are trapped in a cycle of structural reliance on the richer nations due to their need for infusions of foreign capital and external markets for their raw materials, making it impossible for the poorer nations to pursue their own economic and human development.
Sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein stated that most low-income countries in Africa and South America are ________ nations that are dependent on other nations for capital, have little or no industrialization, and have uneven patterns of urbanization.
According to the new international division of labor theory, ________ is the term used to refer to industries in which large retailers, brand-name merchandisers, and trading companies set up decentralized production networks in various middle- and low-income countries.

a. individually-driven commodity chains

b. producer-driven commodity chains

c. transnational-driven commodity chains

d. buyer-driven commodity chains