7th Grade Social Studies Final

Ms. McGovern's social studies 28 page packet
13th Amendment
banned slavery
14th Amendment
15th Amendment
Can't be denied the right to vote based on race
Literacy Tests
a required test to be taken by African Americans in order to be elligable to vote
Poll Tax
a tax put on African American voters, hoping to disenfranchise them
Grandfather Clause
If your grandfather could vote before 1867, you did not have to take a literacy test
Freedmen's Bureau
Helped newly freed African Americans
Klu Klux Klan
Used terrorism and violence to intimidate blacks and other minorities.
Dorethea Dix
Mental Hospitals and Jails (2nd Great Awakening)
Horace Mann
Education movement (2nd Great Awakening)
Against Alcohol
Abolition- Movement to end slavery
William Lloyd Garrison, Fredrick Douglas, Grimke Sisters, Harriet Tubman
Women's Rights Movement
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony
Roots of Reform
2nd Great Awakening, Declaration of Independence
Abraham Lincoln
16th president; President during the Civil War; declared war because he wanted to preserve the union, when elected South seceded
Dred Scott
An 1858 Supreme Court case in which a slave sued for his freedom but the court ruled against Scott because he wasn't a U.S.citizen
John Brown
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Robert E. Lee
General of the Confederates (South)
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy
Harriet Tubman
Conductor of the Underground railroad
Harriet Beecher Stowe
author of Uncle Tom's Cabin (showed the evil's of slavery, fugitive Slave law)
The period of the civil war
Important events in the civil war:
Fort Sumter, Battle of Bull Run, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox Surrender
Civil War battles took place in:
the south (most battles in Virginia)
Important people of the civil war:
Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, McClellan, Grant, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson
Popular Sovereignty
a principle of the U.S. Constitution that states that the people have the to create, alter, and abolish their government. In the mid-1800s, a term referring to the idea that each territory could decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery
Missouri Compromise
1820 -- Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state (states get admited my twos)
Bleeding Kansas
Term referring to bloodshed over popular sovereignty in a particular western territory
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
novel about the evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Law (by Harriet Beecher Stowe)
loyalty to a state or region rather than the whole country
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Civil War
The war in the U.S. that occured between the North and the South
The government the southern states established after they seceded from the Union
To free
A person who is on the run from the law
Northeners who thought the South should be allowed to leave the Union
Habeus Corpus
The right to have charges filed or a hearing before being jailed
A draft requiring men of a certain age to serve in the military
Total War
Strategy of the North towards the end of the civil war to devestate the South
Gettysburg Address
Speech by lincoln in which he restated the Northern goal in the Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's 1863 declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy
Licoln Douglas Debates
1858, Abraham Licoln vs. Stephen Douglas for senator of Illinois
the right to vote
National republicans became whigs, Eastern vuisiness people and Southern Planters wanted the government is to spur the economy
Andrew Jackson & supporters- Frontier farmers & factory workers in East
private meetings where canidates are choosen
Nominating Convention
delegates from all the states choose the party's canidate for president
spoil's system
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
Kitchen Cabinet
Andrew Jackson's unofficial advisors, met in White House Kitchen
Tarriff of Abonimations
1828 tax on imports HATED tax- South dislike, North like
Erie Canal
Reduced Travel time and cost of shipping dropped to 1/20 of what it was before the canal, linked the Great Lakes with the Hudson River
John C. Calhoun
the south, supported the war of 1812, did not want to strengthen the national government
Daniel Webster
the north, opposed war of 1812, wanted to strengthen the national government
Henry Clay
the west, supported war of 1812, wanted to strengthen the national government
Monroe Doctrine
1823, foreign policy statement, U.S. would not interfere in Latin America
Industrial Revolution
change in the way goods were produced 1800s in U.S., origanally started in Great Britain
a person who invests in a buisness in order to make profit
Factory System
brought workers & machinery together in one place. Workers earned wages.
Interchangeable Parts
Eli Whitney- machine made parts would be alike-saves time and money
roads on which tolls were collected
loyalty to one's state or are rather than the nation as a whole
Corduroy Road
road paved with logs
began the age of steamboats
movement of the population from farms to cities
The war of 1812 causes
impression of American sailors and sezure of American Ships, England providing arms to Native Americans in the West, warhawks push for war, conflicts between the settlers and the Native Americans
The war of 1812 events
showdown at Tippecanoe, fighting at sea, Americans invade Canada, march in Washington(Washington burns), the Battle of Baltimore, Francis Scott key writes "the star bangled banner", Battle of New Orleans
The war of 1812 results
treaty of Ghent, status quo
a party that wanted manufacturing, shipping, trade, wanted a strong federal government, a loose interpretation of the constitution, and were pro-British
a party that wanted agriculture, strong state government, strict interpretation of the constitution, pro-French
Lousiana Purchase
France, $15 million, doubled the size of the U.S.
Lewis & Clark
expedition to map & explore Lousiana purchase
Marbury vs. Madison
1803, sumpreme court decision-judicial review
Free Market
prices are not regulated by the government
Judicial review
declaring a law unconstitutional
"let alone"-government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
to cancel; to declare a law null and void
stirring up rebellion against a government
Alien Act
A law that allowed the president to expel foreigners
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
declaration that states had the right to declare a law unconstitional
XYZ Affair
american anger over bribes demanded by french diplomats "millions for defense, but not a penny for tribute"
Who opposed Hamiliton's plan?
James Madison
What were the two main criticisms of his plan?
thought the plan would reward speculators, southern states had already paid off debt
How did Hamiliton defend his plan?
compromise-move nations capital to the south
Hamiliton's Financial Plan
assuming all state and national debts and issuing new bonds to refinance the total debt, adding an excise tax on luxuries, adding tariffs on imported goods, creating a national bank to handle government accounts and coin currency
act/decision that sets an example for others to follow
National Debt
total sum of money a government owes
Protective Tariff
tax on imports meant to protect American industry
Whiskey Rebellion
farmers in PA revolted the whiskey tax, Washington sent miltia- test of strength for the new government
Precedents set by George Washington:
title, did not run for 3rd term, cabinet, and neutrality
Executive Branch
enforces laws, appoints judges, and vetos bills
Legislative Branch
makes laws, override vetos, and approve appointed judges
Judicial Branch
interpets laws, judicial reviews, and declare unconstitional
Power of National Government
coin money, raise army/navy, and declare war
Shared Powers
tax and borrow money
Powers of State Governments
education, voting, and driving requirements
The Great Compromise (problem)
How will representation in congress be determined? Small states wanted it to be equal and large states wanted it to be determined by population
The Great Compromise
a bicameral legislature was created. Representation in the house of Reps. is based on population and representation in the senate is equal
The 3/5s Compromise (problem)
How should slaves be counted to determine population? The Southern states wanted them to be counted and the Northern states did not
The 3/5s Compromise
Every five slaves would equal three persons in determining a state's population for taxation and representation
The Addition of the Bill of Rights (problem)
Federalists wanted to ratify the constition as it was, Anti-federalists feared that there was not enough individual protection in the constitution
The Addition of the Bill of Rights (compromise)
Anti-Federalist agreed to ratify the constitution if a Bill of Rights was added. The Bill of Rights was added in 1791
What was the purpose of the Philadelphia Convention and what did it accomplish?
the origianl purpose was to revise the A.O.C.-the result created a new constitution, gave more power to the national government
a proposed law
to officially accuse a public official of high crimes and misdemeanors
a two-house leguilature
to officially approve
a presidential rejection of a bill
a group of states or nations joined for a common purpose
to change
an action that is used as an example for others to follow
not legal under the constitutional
a system of government in which power is divided between the federal government and the state governments
congress' ability to passa law that the presidenthas vetoed
policy of not choosing sides in a conflict
Shay's Rebellion
2,000 famer uprising- sign that the A.O.C. was weak
Land Ordinance of 1785
system for settling a Northwest territory
Northwest Ordiance
government for the Northwest territory
Electoral College
electors from a state to vote for the president or the vice president
Separation of Powers
powers of government are divided into 3 branches
Checks and Balances
each branch of government can check or control the others
Delegated Powers
powers given to the national government
Reserved Powers
powers set aside for the states
Concurrent Powers
powers for the national government and states
Judicial Review
power of the supreme court to declare a law unconstitutional
nation in which voters elect representatives
Separatopn of Church and State
Freedom of religion/no religion in government
officail count of the pop. every 10 years
Marbury v. Madison
1803, Supreme Court decision that established judicial review
The Slave Trade Compromise(problem)
those against slavery wanted the slave trade abolished. Most Southern states wanted to preserve it.
The Slave Trade Compromise
the importation of slaves would end in 1808
Articles of Confederation
loose confederation of states, weak central government, more power to the states, ended the war, set up a frame of government, (no pwer to regulate trade tax, raise an army/navy make money)
Great Britian:
magna carta, 1215, English Bill of Rights, limited the power of the king
Limited Government
the constitution of the U.S. specufucally lists what the national government can and cannot do
Representative Government
people elect people to run the government
Separation of Power
power in the central government is divided into 3 branchess (legislative, executivem and judicial)
Albany Plan of Union
tried to unite the colonies(failed), A proposal for increased unity and cooperation among the colonies
Revolution slogan
no taxation without representation
Radicals & Tories
Radicals=patriots and loyalists=tories
French and Indian War took place in
the Ohio Valley
Britian felt
they had to tax the colonists to raise money after the French and Indian War
Navigation Acts(18th Century) purpose
forced colonists to ttrade with Britain
Navigation Acts Colonists Reaction
colonists engaged in smuggling and bribing colonial officials
Writs of Assistance(1760) purpose
gave British officials general warrants to search homes for smuggled goods
Writs of Assistance Colonists Reaction
Massachusetts colonists sent protests to London
Proclamation of 1763 purpose
Banned white settlers west of the Appalachian mts. for protection
Proclamation of 1763 Colonists Reaction
Colonists defied theorder and continued westward
Stamp Act(1765) purpose
placed taxes on legal documents ex. wills, diplomas, newspapers, cards, etc.
Stamp Act Colonists Reaction
mobs destroyed the houses of tax officials, riots, and threats
Quartering Act(1765) purpose
soldiers had no right to stay in colonists houses
Quartering Act(1765) Colonists Reaction
colonists wrote protests
Townshend Acts purpose
import tax on tea, lead, paint, and paper
Townshend Acts(1767) Colonists Reaction
colonists boycotted British goods
Intolerable Acts(1767)
punished colonists for Boston tea party
Intolerable Acts Colonists Reaction
colonists boycotted British goods
Thomas Paine
it is a common sense that the colonies shouldn't be ruled by a king
Declaration of Independence statement of Democratic principles
statement of Democratic principles influenced by John Locke, main ideas
The main ideas for the Declaration of Independence
all men have the right to life, liberty, and the pusuit of happiness, government gets its authority from the people, people have the right to revolt
Statement of Grievance for the Declaration of Independence
complaints directed toward King George III
Concluding Statement of the Declaration of Independence
declared the colonists' formal break with Great Britain
The Trearty of Paris, 1783
British recognized the independence of the U.S., geographic boundaries, and the U.S. fishing rights in the Atlantic Ocean
British advatages
money and soldiers
Colonies advatages
knew the land and had a motive(independence)
Lexington and Concord
American Revolution 1st Battle
American Revolution last Battle
Yorktown, VA
south, James Oglethrope, debtors
South Carolina
south, rice and indigo, north and south carolina divided
North Carolina
south, cash crop-tobacco, north and south carolina divided
south, Jamestown, House of Burgess, tobacco
middle, William Penn, Quakers
New York
middle, Peter Stuyvestant, Dutch and British(patroons)
New Hampshire
new England, trade and fishing
new England, John Winthrop, religious freedom
Rhode Island
new England, Anne Hutchinson, religious freedom
new England, religious freedom
New Jersey
middle, proprietary colony
middle, broke away from Pennsylvania, trade
south, Lord Baltimore, Catholics
pilgrims, separatists who wanted to separate from the church of England
Mayflower Compact
government for the pilgrim colony
hoped to reform the church of England (Mass. Bay)
the domination of one country over another colonialism
colonies exist to benefit the mother country
series if holy wars Christians vs. Muslims
document that sets out laws for a government
Northwest Passage
waterways through or around the Americas
Proprietary Colony
English colony where king gave land to proprietors for yearly payment
believing that one group is inferior because of their race
goods coming into a country
Indentured Servants
men and women who entered inta a contract to work for seven years in exchange for passage to the colonies
Middle Passage
the longest leg of triangle trade, many Africans died in this portion of the trip
goods leaving a country
triangular trade
the colonial trade route between New England, Africa, and the West Indies in which rum, lumber, and slaves were traded
God, Gold, and Glory
exploration motive
primary sources
diary, journal
secondary sources
textbook, book written at a later time
study past human events to build accurate records of the past
archaeology study of evidence left by early people in order to find out about their way of life
study of the earth, including its people, region, movement, location, place, interaction
Political Science
Study of structure and activities of goverment for social order
finger lakes, matrilineal,longhouses, Iroquois league/confederacy, MOOCS, adapted to their enviroment
LI/east coast, patrilineal, wigwams, adapted to their enviroment
Iroquois and Algonquin shared characteristics
spirits in nature, no one owned the land, tribes, clans, sachems, wampums, and the three sisters (corn, beans, squash)