ADULTS: 5,000 - 10,000/mm3
CHILDREN: 5,000 - 13,000/mm3
INCREASED? (infection, stress/trauma, dehydration, tissue necrosis)- check for signs of infection/ inflammation, antibiotics?
DECREASED? (autoimmune disease, bone marrow dysfunction, vitamin deficiency)- protect from infection
8.2-10.2 critical =<7 or > 12
evaluate parathyroid function & calcium metablolism. needed for muscle contractility, cardiac funciton, neural
transmission and blood clotting.
INCREASED- bone tumors, prolonged immobilizaiton, hyperparathyroidism
DECREASED- inadequate intake, Vit D deviciency, renal failure, hypoparathyroidism
assess intake of calcium & Vit D, renal function, cardiac function, CALCIUM CAN CAUSE CONSTIPATION
10-20 critical >100 (have acidemia, confusion, fatigue, N/V, coma)
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measures the amount of urea nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, in the blood. Urea is formed by the liver and carried by the blood to the kidneys for excretion. Because urea is cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys, a test measuring how much urea nitrogen remains in the blood can be used as a test of renal function.
INCREASED (aka azotemia) - elderly and in males - renal failure, dehydration, shock, stress, trauma, excessive protein intake
DECREASED- liver failure, malnutrition, steroids, overhydration, pregnacy (due to increased plasma volume)
INCREASED- diabetes mellitus, acute stress, diuretic & steroid use, chronic renal failure
DECREASED- insulin overdose, starvation
NURSING IMPLICATIONS:assess BS, stress/surgery/meds, diet, activity, insulin
HYPOGLYCEMIA shaking, sweating, anxiety, headache, slurred speech, confusion, hunger, pale
HYPERGLYCEMIA= flushed, fatigue, headache, blurred vision, N & V, polyuria, polydyspia, polyphagie, fruity breath, coma