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PSY2012 Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Philippe Pinel
From france, insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of mind.
Medical models
When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using ____ _____ to review the physical causes of these disorders.
Etiology
Cause and development of the disorder
Diagnosis
Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another.
Treatment
Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital
Prognosis
Forecast about the disorder
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
DSM-V stands for?
DSM-V
A widely used system for classifying psychological disorders; but does NOT explain how the person developed the disorder
Biopsychosocial perspective
Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Helps us understand that were affected by our genes, brain functioning, inner thoughts, and feelings.
Insanity
A legal term rather than a psychological diagnosis, and raises moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes.
Depression
____ is a "common cold" of psychological disorders.
5.8, 9.5
In a year, _____% of men and ____% of women report depression worldwide.
Major depressive disorder
A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
Manic episode
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
Bipolar disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (formerly called manic-depressive disorder)
Suicide
The most severe form of behavioral response to depression is ______.
Social-cognitive
The ______ _______ perspective suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.
Schizophrenia
Literal translation "split mind"; a group of sever disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Schizophrenia
Positive symptoms of _______ are: the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucination, disorganized or delusional talking)
Schizophrenia
Negative symptoms of ____ are: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies)
Schizophrenia
_____ manifests in young people as they mature into adults. It affects men and women equally, but men suffer from it more severely than women.
Chronic/process
When schizophrenia is slow to develop, recovery is doubtful.
Acute/reactive
When schizophrenia rapidly develops, recover is better.
Schizophrenia
_______ is a disease of the brain exhibited by the symptoms of the mind.
Dopamine D4
Researchers found that schizophrenic patients express higher levels of _______ __ receptors in their brain.
Frontal lobes, thalamus, amygdala
Brain scans show abnormal activity in the _____ _____, ______, and _______ of the schizophrenic patients.
Delusions
False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Hallucinations
False sensory experiences such as seeing something without any external visual stimulus
Paranoid, disorganized, catatonic
_____, _____, and _____ are subtypes of schizophrenia.
Paranoid
Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations
Disorganized
Disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion
Catatonic
Immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements.
Panic disorder
Marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
Panic disorder
This can also cause agoraphobia (fear of open places) because people are afraid to go outside in case they have a panic attack
Phobias
Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior
Agoraphobia
Phobia of open places
Acrophobia
Phobia of heights
Claustrophobia
Phobia of closed spaces
Hemophobia
Phobia of blood
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions that cause distress
10, 20
Only about ____% of women, and ___% of men react to traumatic situations and develop PTSD.
Dissociative Disorders
Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder.
Antisocial personality disorder
Disorder in which the person (usually male) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Frontal
Understanding Antisocial Personality Disorder: PET scans of 41 murderers revealed reduced activity in the _____ lobes. In a follow up study, repeat offenders had 11% less activity in that lobe.
Medical model
The concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.
PTSD
An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) maintains a starvation diet despite being significantly (15%+) underweight.
Bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder in which a person alternates binge eating (usually of high-calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting.
Generalized anxiety disorder
Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension, autonomic arousal, inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings: are all symptoms to _____ ______ ______.
Generalized anxiety disorder
When a person is constantly tense, worried, and uneasy for no apparent reason.
Generalized anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
Women, men, men
_____ are much more likely than ___ to do suicide attempts, but ____ are 2 to 4 times more likely to actually take their lives.
13, 22
___% of men are depressed, and ___% of women are depressed.
Axis II
Personality disorders and "mental retardation" belong on which DSM-IV-TR axis?
6.8
The percentage of Americans who reported suffering from social phobia in 2008 was:
Norepinephrine
An overabundance of the neurotransmitter _____ is most likely to be associated with a manic episode.
Biopsychosocial
An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by a(n) _____ approach.
Schizophrenia
_____ is a mental disorder most likely to lead to poverty.
Women are nearly twice as likely to suffer from major depression as are men.
Depression is a serious, common psychological problem that affects many people. Although questions remain concerning the cause or causes of depression, we do know that:
Medical model
At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. Asylums have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals, where attempts are made to diagnose and cure people suffering from psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:
V
Dr. Thibodeaux meets with a client who displays both psychological problems and problems functioning in her daily life. Of the five axes of the DSM-IV-TR, Dr. Thibodeaux would use Axis _____ to assess this client's personal functioning.
Antisocial personality disorder
In contrast to most other psychological disorders, phobias and _____ first appear in childhood.
Vicious cycle
Omar has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Omar interprets negative stressful events using a pessimistic explanatory style. His explanatory style creates a hopeless depressed state, which then hampers the way Omar thinks and acts, causing more negative stressful events. Omar's case illustrates depression's _____.
Axis II
John is a patient who reports significant anger, hostility, and overall disregard for people. He has been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. His personality disorder belongs on which DSM-IV-TR axis?
Axis II
Personality disorders are to ____ as clinical syndromes are to Axis I.
4
The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that just over 1 in _____ of adult Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year.
Phobias
In contrast to most other psychological disorders, antisocial personality disorder and _____ first appear in childhood.
DSM-IV-TR
Tonya is interested in studying psychological disorders. If she wants to study the classification system most often used in the U.S., she should read the:
Medical
At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. Asylums have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals, where attempts are made to diagnose and cure people suffering from psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of the _____ model.
Biopsychosocial
Dr. DeVries believes that psychological disorders are influenced by genetic predispositions and physiological states. She is also aware that inner psychological dynamics, social dynamics, and culture influence psychological disorders. Dr. DeVries believes in a(n) _____ model.
Phobia
According to data from the National Institute of Mental Health, _____ is the MOST common anxiety disorder in the U.S.
Reliable
In one study, Riskind et al. (1987) found that psychologists agreed on patients' DSM diagnoses 83 percent of the time. The consistency of these DSM diagnoses means that the DSM is _____.
OCD
According to data from the National Institute of Mental Health, _____ is the LEAST common anxiety disorder in the U.S.
100
Nearly 1 in _____ people will develop schizophrenia.
Dopamine
Researchers have discovered that there are an excessive number of receptor sites for _____ in schizophrenia patient's brains.
Hallucination; delusion
In the context of schizophrenia, perception is to _____ as cognition is to _____.
Dopamine
Regarding the treatment of schizophrenia, _____-blocking drugs have little effect on persistent negative symptoms such as withdrawal.
Delusions
Mr. Keller incorrectly believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his savings. Specifically, Mr. Keller is suffering from _____.
2
Maternal famine and second-trimester influenza both increase the risk that the child will later develop schizophrenia by a factor of:
Disorganized
On Sam's admission to the psychiatric unit, Dr. Yardley began her evaluation of him. When she asked why he is here, Sam responded that "the binary code knows the answer to the riddle that is in the middle on the griddle. Furthermore, I know that the horned head of Zeus rises in the early morning." Sam may have _____ schizophrenia.
Viral infections
The relationship between the season in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of _____ in this disorder.
Selective attention
Thirty-year-old Nellie has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Her thoughts are disorganized, she is unable to ignore irrelevant stimuli, and she often gives her undivided attention to minute stimuli such as a spotlight shining in a window. Nellie is displaying a breakdown in:
Schizophrenia
Mrs. Higgins believes that aliens from another planet have removed her stomach and are watching to see how long it takes her to grow another. Mrs. Higgins is most likely suffering from:
Negative
Ward's mother is frustrated because she cannot get Ward involved in any activities. Most days he sits in a chair with no expression on his face. These_____ symptoms reflect an absence of appropriate behavior.
10
Arnie and Brett are schizophrenics. They are strangers, but they do have one thing in common besides schizophrenia: they each have a twin. Arnie and Arlene are fraternal twins. Brett and Bart are identical twins, but they did not share a placenta. Arlene has a 10 percent chance of being schizophrenic. Bart has a _____ percent of chance of being schizophrenic.
Generalized anxiety
_____ disorder is characterized by symptoms of unexplained and continually tense and uneasy feelings.
DID
In the 1980s, when the DSM contained the first formal code for _____, the number of diagnoses for this condition in North America exploded to more than 20,000.
Frontal
According to a study by Adrian Raine, PET scans illustrate reduced activation in the _____ lobes of a murderer's cortex.
Psychoanalytic
The suggestion that dissociative identity disorder symptoms are created as defenses against the anxiety caused by one's own unacceptable impulses best illustrates the _____ perspective.
Antisocial
When people talk colloquially about "psychopaths" or "sociopaths," they are usually referring to individuals with _____ personality disorder.
Social phobia
Twenty-year-old Trevor lives in a small town. He has always been extremely shy, but lately he has been feeling intensely afraid that others are scrutinizing him. He avoids speaking in class, he no longer goes to parties, and he starts trembling whenever he is in a public place. Trevor seems to be suffering from a(n) _____.
A dissociative disorder
A sudden loss of memory is one symptom of
OCD
Tammy is focused on cleaning her home, which she does for four hours per day. In particular, the fringe on her rugs must be straight on both sides in all five rooms. This takes considerable time and she often adjusts the rugs 10 to 12 times per day in addition to her ritualistic cleaning. Tammy's experience is most symptomatic of _____.
Conditioning
Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when she approaches any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear is the result of a traumatic childhood boating accident. The therapist's suggestion reflects the _____ perspective.
Cultural ideas of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness
Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is probably attributable to:
11% less
Adrian Raine studied the brains of violent repeat offenders and found that their brains had _____ frontal lobe tissue than a normal brain. This may help explain why these people exhibit deficits in cognitive functions such as planning, organization, and inhibition.
Anxiety
Sigmund Freud proposed that, beginning in childhood, people repress intolerable impulses, ideas, and feelings, and that this submerged mental energy sometimes produces mystifying symptoms, most notably _____.
Antisocial personality disorder
A person with _____ is aggressive, ruthless, and shows no sign of the conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing.
Phobia
Lilly is extremely fearful of germs. She sleeps in a special chamber at night, wears gloves, and will only eat food that she can unwrap. Her symptoms are most characteristic of _____.
Antisocial
Low levels of anxiety are most characteristic of _____ personality disorder
OCD
Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress the intrusive worry that she may have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of:
Antisocial
A person with _____ personality disorder is aggressive and ruthless and shows no sign of the conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing.
Serotonin
Some studies suggest there may be an anxiety gene that affects brain levels of:
Dissociative identity disorder
Angel has been arrested for grand theft auto. He claims that it wasn't him and that he knows nothing about the crime, and that his alter ego must have done it. The court-appointed psychiatrist knows immediately that Angel does NOT suffer from _____ as the host is never co-conscious with the alter egos.
Bulimia nervosa
In an attempt to lose some of the weight gained by binge eating, Claire uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Claire most clearly demonstrates symptoms of _____.
A manic episode
An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with:
Last for two weeks or more
Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder characterized by signs of depression (e.g., lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in family, friends, and activities). To be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, these signs must:
Axis III
Your professor asks you on what axis diabetes would fall under. You answer:
II
Personality disorders and mental retardation belong on which Axis?
Biopsychosocial model
Dr. Cobbs believes that psychological disorders are influenced by genetic predispositions and physiological states. He is also aware that inner psychological dynamics, social dynamics, and culture influence psychological disorders. Dr. Cobbs believes in a:
A biopsychosocial approach
An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by:
Axis V
Dr. Sorenson meets with a client who displays both psychological problems and problems functioning in her daily life. Which of the five axes of the DSM-IV-TR would Dr. Sorenson use to classify this client's personal function?
Antisocial personality disorder
In ______________, the affected person is aggressive and ruthless, and shows no sign of the conscience that would inhibit wrongdoing.
Anorexia nervosa
Although she is underweight, Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:
Anorexia nervosa
Raquel was initially excited to make the cheerleading squad. However, her parents noticed that she stopping eating dinner with them, wanted to help make most meals, and had a list of good and bad foods. She began portioning the amount of food she ate, weighing food, and would claim to have already eaten. Most concerning was the significant weight drop from a healthy 115 pounds to 90 pounds. This case most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:
Anorexia nervosa
Significant dieting, significant weight loss of more than 15 percent of your normal body weight is common in individuals with:
20,000
In the 1980s, when the DSM contained the first formal code for DID, the number of DID diagnoses in North America exploded to more than:
Dissociative identity disorder
Angel has been arrested for grand theft auto. He claims that it wasn't him and that he knows nothing about the crime as his alter ego must have done it. The court-appointed psychiatrist knows immediately that Angel does not suffer from _____ as the host is never co-conscious with the alter egos.
4; 50
PTSD rates vary from ___ percent among those who have experienced a natural disaster, to up to ___ percent among those who have been kidnapped, held captive, tortured, or raped.
Social phobia
If you have an intense fear of speaking in public, eating out, or going to parties, you may be suffering from:
Phobias
People who feel irrationally and intensely afraid of a specific object or situation are suffering from:
Phobia
Although Mark realizes his behavior is unreasonable, he is so distraught by high bridges that he avoids them and takes an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from a(n):
Phobia
If you avoid situations in which help may not be available when panic strikes, you may be suffering from a:
Are tense and apprehensive all the time
People who suffer from generalized anxiety disorder:
Bulimia nervosa
In an attempt to lose some of the weight gained by binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of
One half
About _______ of all children whose lack of conscience becomes plain before age 15, lie, steal, cheat, and fight to become antisocial adults.
Antisocial personality disorder
Last week Tate went into the hospital for a painful medical procedure. Amazingly, he did not seem worried beforehand, and he showed no signs of autonomic nervous system arousal. In addition, Tate seems to lack a conscience for wrongdoing. It is very likely that Tate would be diagnosed as having:
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Anxiety disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Frontal
Research finds reduced activity in which brain lobes during antisocial personality disorder?
Reexperiencing, avoidance of stimuli, and increased arousal
What are the three clusters of PTSD?
Psychological disorder
A "harmful dysfunction" in which behavior is judged to be a:
Atypical
Not enough in itself
Disturbing
Varies with time and culture
Maladaptive
Harmful
Unjustifiable
Sometimes there is just a good reason
Depressed
Explanatory style plays a major role in becoming ______.
Stressful experiences, negative explanatory style, depressed mood, cognitive and behavioral changes
What is the depression cycle?
Daydreaming, spacing out, hypnosis
What are some mild forms of dissociation?
Depersonalization, derealization
What are some more serious forms of dissociation?
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
What are severe forms of dissociation?
Echolalia, echopraxia
Parrotlike repeating of someones speech in catatonic schizophrenia is _____ and the movements are ____.
PTSD
The person has experienced, witnessed, or been confronted with an event or events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others.
PTSD
The persons response involved intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Note: in children, it may be expressed instead of disorganized or agitated behavior
GAD: Is chronic, lasts for a while, very tense. Panic disorder: Lasts for a couple of minutes, acute, having a panic attack, anxiety is very high
What is the difference in anxiety level and duration for GAD and panic disorder?
Males, violence
Successful suicides are higher in ____, because of _____.
Women, men
Depression rates are higher in _____ than in ____.
Depression, schizophrenia
What two disorders are found worldwide?