AP Psychology: Biological Perspective
Terms in this set (69)
The study of the parts and function of neurons
Individual Nerve cells
root-like structures growing off the neuron that receive neural messages
It contains the nucleus of the cell and sustains its life.
wire-like structures ending in the terminal buttons that extend from the cell body and send messages to the next neuron.
A fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speeds neural impulses.
Terminal Buttons (Axon Terminal)
The end of the axon that contains neurotransmitters
Chemicals contained in the terminal buttons that enable neurons to communicate. They fit into receptor sites on the dendrites of neurons like a key fits into a lock
The space between the terminal buttons of one neuron and the dendrites of the next neuron.
They act as little receivers (or ears) that listen to the messages of the chemical messenger molecules as they float in the intercellular fluid surrounding every cell.
If enough neurotransmitters fit into receptor sites on the dendrite it allows the next neuron to reach this point.
The electric message firing; it travels quickly (120 meters per second)
neurons either fire completely or it does not fire.
It is an electrochemical process. Electricity travels within the cell (from dendrites to the terminal buttons) and chemicals travel between cells in the synapse.
These chemicals excite the next neuron into firing.
These chemicals stop the next neuron from firing.
Responsible for autonomic motor movement. It is associated with learning and memory. A lack of this neurotransmitter is associated with Alzheimer's Disease
It is responsible for voluntary motor movement and alertness. A lack of it is associated with Parkinson's Disease and an overabundance is associated with schizophrenia.
It is responsible for pain control and involved in addictions.
It is responsible for mood control. A lack of it is associated with clinical depression.
It is also called noradrenaline and is released predominantly from the ends of sympathetic nerve fibres and that acts to increase the force of skeletal muscle contraction and the rate and force of contraction of the heart. The actions are vital to the fight-or-flight response
These cells take information from the senses to the brain.
These cells take information from the brain to the rest of the body.
The Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal chord and all the nerves contained in those bones and muscle
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
This consists of all the other nerves (not in the CNS) and not encased in bone.
Somatic Nervous System
This controls your voluntary muscle movements. The motor cortex sends nerve impulses to this system and allows us to move.
Autonomic Nervous System
This controls the automatic functions of our body--our hearts, lungs, internal organs, glands, and so on. These nerves control our body responses to stress--the fight or flight response.
Sympathetic Nervous System
This mobilizes our body to respond to stress. This carries messages to the control systems of the organs, glands, and muscles that direct our body's responses to stress. This is the alert system of our body and accelerates some function like heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
This system is responsible for slowing down our body after a stress response. It is the brake pedal that slows down the autonomic nervous system.
The removal or destruction of part of the brain. It is not done purely for experimental purposes. prefrontal lobotomy is an example.
A brain test that detects and measures brain waves. Typically used in sleep and dream studies.
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)
A brain scan that uses several x-ray cameras that rotate around the brain and combine all the pictures into a detailed 3-D picture of the brain's structure.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A brain scan that uses magnetic fields to measure the density and location of brain material.
Positron Emission Tomography
A brain scan that lets researchers see what areas of the brain are most active during certain tasks. It measures how much glucose is being used in different areas of the brain.
A new brain scan that combines elements of the MRI and PET scans. It ties brain structure to activity during cognitive tasks.
It consists of brain structures in the top part of the spinal cord. It is our life support system and controls basic biological functions that keep us alive. It includes structures like the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
Brain structure in the hindbrain. It controls blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing.
Brain structure in the hindbrain. It connects the hindbrain with the midbrain and forebrain. Regulates sleep and controls facial expressions.
Brain structure in the hindbrain. It looks like a smaller version of the brain. It controls habitual muscle movements such as tracking a target with our eyes or playing the saxophone. It is also responsible for balance and coordination.
This area of the brain coordinates simple movements with sensory information. It is also important for various muscle coordinations. One part of this area is the reticular Activation System.
Reticular Formation (RAS)
Brain structure: a collection of cells that controls general body arousal and attention. If it does not function, we fall into a deep coma.
This area of the brain controls what we think of as thought and reason. It includes areas like the thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.
Brain structure in the forebrain. It is responsible for receiving the sensory signals coming from the spinal cord and sending them to the appropriate areas in the rest of the forebrain.
A small structure that controls several metabolic functions: body temperature, sexual arousal, hunger, thirst and the endocrine system. It controls our biological rhythms.
Brain structure in the forebrain; It is vital to our experiences of emotion and part of the limbic system.
Brain structure in the forebrain; it is vital to our memory system. Memories are processed in this area and sent to other areas on the cerebral cortex for permanent storage.
a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring).
The grey wrinkled surface of the brain that is densely packed with neurons and is about 1/4 of inch thick.
The cerebral cortex is divided into two parts. The left controls the right side of the body and the right controls the left.
The side that is responsible for language, logic, and reason
The side that is responsible for facial recognition, visualization, music, and art
Each side of the brain specializes in different functions
The nerve bundle that connects the two hemispheres
There are four of these in each hemisphere of the brain.
The lobes located right behind the eyes. It directs thought processes and regulates behavior.
Found in the frontal lobe, this area is responsible for controlling the muscles that allow us to produce speech.
A term for speech problems
located on the left temporal lobe. This area interprets both written and spoken language. Damage leads to issues with understanding language.
A thin vertical strips at the back of the frontal lobe that sends signals to our muscles, controlling our voluntary functions.
Lobes found behind the frontal lobe, but still on the top of the brain. They contain the sensory cortex, or the somato-sensory cortex.
A thin vertical strip that receives incoming touch sensations from the rest of the body.
Lobes that process sound sensed by our ears.
Lobes that process visual information sensed by our eyes.
Brain (Neural) Plasticity
The brain's ability to make new connections and recover from damage.
A system of glands that secretes hormones that affect many different biological functions throughout the body.
They produce adrenaline and help the body prepare for the fight or flight response.
Twins that result from the fertilization of a single egg (Identical)
The Master Gland
Twins that result from the fertilization of two eggs (fraternal)
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Psychology | Sdorow, Rickabaugh, Betz
AP Psychology: Chapter 3
AP Psychology- Biological bases of behavior
AP Psychology- Biology
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Social Psychology Final
Chapter 9: Early Childhood: Cognitive Development
Social and Emotional Development
Psychology chapter 3: Infancy and Childhood