AP World Stearns Chapter 6
Terms in this set (40)
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives, and many children
Dominant tribe in Mecca, tribe of which Mohhamad was born
Arabic word meaning "the one and only god". Mainly used by Muslims.
The flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.
Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
One of the two branches of Islam. This branch of Muslims believe that the caliph doesn't have to be related to Muhammad and should be chosen by the leaders of the Islamic community
the chosen city by the umayyad Caliphs in Syria to be their capital. they ruled from ad 661 to ad 750
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.
chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire
Battle of River Zab
Victory of Abbasids over Umayyads; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital
An Islamic house of worship
those who practice the religion of Islam; believe in one God, and the prophet Muhammad whom they believe God spoke through
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Ummayad Caliphs ruled from AD 661-AD 750, Damascus in Syria was their capital
Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community
The pilgrimage to Mecca, which every adult Muslim is supposed to make at least once in his or her lifetime: The 5th of the Pillars of Islam
Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam
Battle of Siffin
Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party
One of the two branches of Islam. This branch of Muslims acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
Non-Arab Muslims in the Umayyad dynasty
Leader of the rebellion against the Umayyad; descendant of Muhammad's uncle (750 CE)
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset
A member of a nomadic tribe of Arabs
a city in western Saudi Arabia, City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca
("cube") a pre-islamic cubed building in mecca believed by muslims to have been built by Abraham. It is the center of the Muslim Pilgrimage
The sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
The fourth pillar of Islam is almsgiving as an act of worship
The fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by the branch, Shi'a
A holy war undertaken as a sacred duty by Muslims
Caliph of Umayyad Dynasty, 661-680
Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi'a resistance to Umayyad caliphate
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected within an Islamic society (People of the Book)
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq
A tradition relating the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic law. (p. 241)
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design