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What percent of time do people spend their waking hours communicating—writing, reading, speaking, listening?

70 percent

Work Canada survey of 2039 Canadians in six industrial and service categories found

61 percent of senior executives believed that they did a good job of communicating with employees; Only 33 percent of managers and department heads believed that senior executives were effective communicators

What percents of hourly workers, clerical employees, and professional staff reported that senior executives did a good job of communicating with them?

22% hourly workers & professional staff, 27% clerical employees

Canadian vs. American report of less favourable perceptions about their perceptions of their company's communications

Canadians reported less favourable perceptions about their company's communications than did Americans.


The transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people.


Establishes a message, encodes the message, and chooses the channel to send it.


Decodes the message and provides feedback to the sender.


Converting a message to symbolic form.


Interpreting a sender's message.


What is communicated.


The medium through which a message travels.

Channels differ in their capacity to

convey information.

3 things rich channels have the ability to do

Handle multiple cues simultaneously; Facilitate rapid feedback; Be very personal.

Barriers to Effective Communication

Filtering; Selective Perception; Defensiveness; Information Overload; Language


The sender manipulates information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver.

Selective Perception

The receivers selectively sees and hears based on their needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics.


When individuals interpret a message as threatening, they often respond in ways that retard effective communication.


Words mean different things to different people.

Information Overload

Occurs when the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity.

Communicating Under Stress

Speak clearly; Be aware of the nonverbal part of communicating; Think carefully about how you state things.

Downward Direction of Communication

Communication that flows from one level of a group to a lower level; Managers to employees

Upward Direction of Communication

Communication that flows to a higher level of a group; employees to manager; Becoming increasingly difficult

Lateral Direction of Communication

Communication among members of the same work group, or individuals at the same level.


Connections by which information flow.

Formal Networks

Task-related communications that follow the authority chain

The Grapevine - Informal Networks

Communications that flow along social and relational lines

5 Significant Limitations of E-mail

Misinterpreting the message; Communicating negative messages; Overuse of e-mail; E-mail emotions; Privacy concerns

Instant Messaging (IM) and Text Messaging (TM)

Rapidly gaining popularity in business; Fast and inexpensive way for managers to stay in touch with employees and peers with each other; IM is better for short messages that will be quickly deleted.

Despite exponential growth in usage

IM and TM are not likely to replace email; Email is better for long messages that need to be saved.

Security and IM/TM

There are additional security fears in using IM/TM (More easily intercepted)

Nonverbal Communication

Messages conveyed through body movements, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and the receiver


The study of body motions, such as gestures, facial configurations, and other movements of the body.


The study of physical space in interpersonal relationships.

Silence as Communication

Defined as an absence of speech or noise. Not necessarily inaction.

3 things silence can convey

Thinking or contemplating a response to a question; Anxiety about speaking; Agreement, dissent, frustration, or anger.

What should individuals be aware of in terms of silence?

Individuals should be aware of what silence might mean in any communication.

Communication Barriers Between Women and Men

Men use talk to emphasize status, women use it to create connection; Women and men tend to approach points of conflict differently; Men and women view directness and indirectness differently; Women interpret male directness as an assertion of status and one-upmanship; Men interpret female indirectness as covert, sneaky, and weak; Men criticize women for apologizing, but women say "I'm sorry" to express empathy.

Cross-Cultural Communication Difficulties (3 Sources of barriers)

Semantics; Word connotations; Tonal differences

Culture Contexts

Cultures differ in how much the context makes a difference in communication.

High-context cultures

Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication.

Low-context cultures

Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.

Cross-Cultural Communications: 4 Helpful Rules

Assume differences until similarity is proven; Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation; Practise empathy; Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis.

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