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Terms in this set (90)

Health Models
• Maslow's Human Needs Model (p. 11)
Describes the relationships between the basic requirements for survival and the desires that drive personal growth and development.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs, nutrition must be maintained before any of the higher-level needs can be met. Then safety, love and belonging, and self-esteem are necessary in a step-wise progression before self-actualization can occur.
• Health Belief Model (1974)- measure for determining the person's motivation to learn (education & motivation)
explores how patients' attitudes and beliefs predict health behavior.
The final concept to be added to the Health Belief Model is self-efficacy功效, the belief in one's own ability to perform a task.
self-efficacy means that perceive the ability to care out recommended actions.
• Pender's Health Promotion Model
Defines health as a positive, dynamic state of well-being rather than the absence of disease in the physiologic state.
• Holistic Health Models
In nursing care are based on the philosophy that a synergistic relationship exists between the body and the environment.
Pender's Health Promotion Model (1982)
Health is a positive, dynamic state, not merely the absence of disease
Health promotion = ↑ a person's level of well-being
Areas of focus:
• Individual characteristics & experiences
• Behavior-specific knowledge & affect
• Behavioral outcomes
It is developed to be complementary to models of health promotion, and describes people being to multidimensional (holistic).
The HPM describes an individual's interaction with his environment as he engages in behaviors that promote health.
Holistic 整体的 Health Models
Incorporation of complementary and alternative interventions to promote optimal health
Music therapy
Relaxation therapy
Therapeutic touch Guided imagery
Alone or in conjunction with conventional medicine
• Primary Prevention is instituted before disease becomes established by removing the causes or increasing resistance.
• Secondary Prevention is undertaken in cases of latent (hidden) disease.
• Tertiary Prevention, also known as the treatment or rehabilitation stage of preventive care, is implemented when a condition or illness is permanent and irreversible.

Primary Prevention
True prevention. Protection of against diseases. Aimed at those considered physically and emotionally healthy
• Health education programs
• Immunizations
• Physical and nutritional fitness
• Risk assessments
• Family planning
• Environmental sanitation
E.g.: girls talk about birth control

Secondary Prevention (diagnose something or treat something)
Early detection of disease, prompt intervention, and health maintenance for individuals experiencing health problems including prevention of complications and disabilities
Diagnosis
Care provided in home, hospital or other agency
Intervention
Screening
Self exams
E.g.: someone come into the hospital who has symptom of anomia, and nurses treat the patient
Blood pressure screening at the mall (early detection of the disease)
A group people have new diabetics, nurses teaching them how to use insulin.

Tertiary Prevention (have already had something, and you try not to get worse)
Begins after an illness, when a disability is stabilized or fixed, prevention of complications and disabilities
Referrals - i.e. support group
Teaching to prevent complications
Rehabilitation
E.g.: a group people have new diabetics, nurses teaching them about skin care to prevent complications
A group of high school students that had babies, nurses teaching them about family planning