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HORT 2100 Exam 1
Terms in this set (29)
List the 6 elements that make up the bulk of covalently bonded biological molecules
Plants typically obtain H, O, and C from what sources?
Water and carbon dioxide
Give nine micronutrients required for healthy plant growth
B, Na, Cl, Mn, Zn, Ni, Fe, Mo, and Cu
In what chemical form is Si found in plants like bamboo and equisetum?
Give condensed structural formula for the common name given
3. Carbon dioxide
What is one reason for the broad toxicity of some heavy metals like Pb?
Lead (Pb) substitutes for calcium (Ca) because it is the same size and shape but does not support the biological functions of Ca
Jasmonic acid (weak acid; pKa =4.5; structure shown below) has been shown to trigger
chemical defense responses in numerous plant species. You are trying to make a solution
of jasmonic acid in water to apply to some plants, but find that it is not dissolving. You
check the pH and see that it is near 3.5. At this pH what is the ratio of protonated (neutral, RCO2H) to unprotonated (negatively charged, RCO2-) jasmonic acid? What can you do besides heating and shaking to increase the compound's solubility in water?
It is mostly protonated and neutral in this solution. If you add base (NaOH) to this solution to bring the pH above the pKa the jasmonic acid will be more soluble
The pKa of acetic acid is 4.76. If a solution is .1M acetic acid and .1M acetate, what is the pH of the solution?
4.76, because the amount of acetic acid is equal to the amount of acetate (conjugate base of acetic acid)
If a solution is 1M acetic acid and .1M acetate (conjugate base of acetic acid) what is the pH?
3.76, because there is 10x more acid than base it is pKa-1, if there were 10x more base than acid it would be pKa+1
what mineral is typically added to soil to lower its pH?
what mineral is typically added to soil to raise its pH?
Some hydrangea cultivars yield blue flowers when grown in acid soil and pink flowers
when grown in basic soil. The pH of the floral vacuole containing the flower pigments does not change with soil pH. Explain the reason for change in flower color with different pH
The pigment changes color depending on the metal ion with which it associates. In acid, soil aluminum is more soluble and is absorbed into the plant. Plants tend to sequester aluminum in the vacuole where the pigments also are stored in the flower cells. The blue coloration is due to a complex between aluminum ion and the floral pigment with iron instead of aluminum
What is the class of organic compounds called that wrap around metal ions (like a claw) forming multiple interactions?
Rank the following one carbon molecules from most oxidized to most reduced: CO2, CH4, HCHO, CH3OH, HCOOH
CO2, HCOOH, HCHO, CH3OH, CH4
Which one of the following is the more reduced compound of each pair?
Cu2+, Cu (metal)
A sunflower seed kernel has a mass of 36 mg and is ~50% lipid. The energy contained in
lipid as a class of molecules is roughly 9 kcal/g. ATP can store ~0.03 kcal/g in chemically usable P-O (phosphodiester) bonds of its triphosphate moiety. How much would the sunflower kernel weigh if all of lipid were replaced by an energetically equivalent amount of ATP? Given that several of the numbers used for this calculation are rough estimates, provide your answer with one significant digit
50% of 36= 18 mg
18 mg=.018 g
.018 g x 9 kcal/g= .162 kcal
.162 kcal /.03 kcal/g (ATP)= 5.4 g ATP
add back .018 for the non-lipid part of the kernel
5.4 g + .018 g= 5.418 g ~5 g
site of cellular respiration
site for photosynthesis, synthesis of starch and some lipids
maintains cell turgor, used for cell storage, waste depository
contains and isolates reactions with toxic intermediates (hydrogen peroxide)
provides mechanical stability
connect cell interiors (cytosal and ER) to from symplast
processing of proteins for export or placement in vacuole
synthesis and storage of pigments (only in specialized cell types)
What is the difference between a passive and an active transporter?
Active transport uses an energy source (ATP hydrolysis) to drive transport; passive requires no energy input
Plant cell interior spaces are connected by _____________________, which allow some
molecules in the cytosol and ER to pass freely between cells. The connected interior
space is called the ___________________ and the exterior space is called the
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