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psychological science chp. 13
Terms in this set (42)
the personality paradox
people often behave less consistently than expected
the trait approach
people have a number of characteristics that control different types of behavior
Critique of trait theory
weak predictability, does not explain why, doesn't account cultural influence and norms, relies on self-report
the interactionists approach
add behaviors together
the trait theorists think you are...
what you are born
the psychodynamics think you are...
what you wear
the social cognitives think you are...
what you do/how you interpret things
the humanistics think you are...
all that you can be
Can we specify a LIMITED number of basic traits that we can use to accurately describe people's personalities?
-ideographic approach --> no
-nomoethic approach --> yes
determined 18,000 traits
determed three traits:
Psychoticism v. considerate
neuroticism v. stability
introversion v. extraversion
The Big Five
Five traits that are universal
testing for personality include...
Objective tests (self-reporting) and projective tests
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Most widely used personality instrument
(Now the MMPI - 2)
Measures aspects of personality that, if extreme, suggest a problem (e.g., extreme suspiciousness)
Long test ‑ 567 questions
Sigmund Freud is the father of...
the psychodymanic approach
people's behavior is controlled by forces of which they are unaware. The nature of the unconscious forces in the person depends on their childhood experiences.
Psychodynamic strucure of personality
consciousness, preconscious (smallest part), and unconscious
the "selfish beast" in the unconscious
keeps the lid on the Id; it's the executor of urges in a reasonable way
the super ego
reminds you all of the do's and don'ts
the Id's boundless drive for gratification
the ego's ability to delay gratification
Defense mechanisms occur in order to...
cope with the conflict of the two principles
Freud's psychological stages
Oral Stage (0-18m): mouth, sucking, chewing
Anal Stage (18-36m): bladder, bathroom behavior
Phallic Stage (3-6y): genitals, incest
Latency Stage (6-puberty):
-"Bad thoughts" get pushed out of consciousness - so sexual impulses are repressed.
Genital Stage (puberty-on):
Develop sexual feelings towards others.
Thematic Apperception Test
Person is asked to tell a story about the "hero" in the picture
critique of psychodynamic approach
few objective observations; after-the-fact explanations; unaccessible to controlled studies; theory is too flexible; no consideration of cultural factors; little support for influence of childhood events on long-lasting effects
according to the psychodynamic approach, psychological disorders arise because of...
Unconscious conflict over impulses
Founded by B.F. Skinner; says that people's behavior is controlled by their history of reinforcement and punishment; behaviors that have been reinforced are more likely to recur
According to the behaviorist approach, psychological disorders arise because of...
Positive reinforcement of inappropriate behavior
Punishment of appropriate behavior
Critique of behaviorist approach
It ignores emotions
Low in comprehensiveness
the social-cognitive approach
people's behavior is affected by cognitive processes such as interpreting the characteristics of a particular situation and holding beliefs about the locus of control and self efficacy
locus of control
the expectancy that one's reinforcements are generally controlled by internal or external factors
the belief that one is capable of performing the behaviors required to produce a desired outcome
The causes of psychological disorders according to the s-c approach are...
Irrational or maladaptive thinking
Critique of social-cognitive theory
Does not account enough for individuality
Little emphasis on affective characteristics
people are basically good at birth, but may acquire a poor self-image if they group in a nonsupportive environment
unconditional positive regard
a situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is unqualified
What guides our perspective on self?
The actual self (who you are)
The ideal self (who you want to be)
The ought self (who you believe you should be)
"ideal selves" -- what you want to be
discrepancy leads to depression, disappointment
"ought selves" -- what you should be
discrepancy leads to anxiety, guilt, shame
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization
psychological disorders come from what according to humanistic approach
discrepancy between real and other selves
Critique of humanistic approach
WEAK OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS (SELF ACTUALIZATION)
LACKS EXPLANATION FOR WHERE THE DRIVES COME FROM
IS IT TOO IDEALISTIC?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Theories of Personality Exam 2
Psy 1000 Personality Exam
PsychologicalScience Chp. 2 Definitions
Psych 1000 PERSONALITY
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