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Terms in this set (53)
How were children viewed throughout history?
- Property/ Servants
In what century, did children experience greater legal protection?
- 20th. Century; children were required to attend school until a certain age
Difference in naturalistic observation, longitude study, and cross-sectional study.
1. Naturalistic Observation: Organism are observed in their natural environments
2. Longitude Study: Repeating measures of the same group of participants at various stage of development
3. Cross-Sectional Study: Measures of participants of different age groups at the same time.
Difference between classical and operant conditioning.
- Classical Conditioning: Brings the response usually brought fourth by a second stimulus by being paired repeatedly with the second stimulus.
- Operant Conditioning: Organism learns to engage in behavior that is reinforced.
Is development continues or discontinuous- how are they different?
- Development is a continuous process which effect of learning mount gradually, which no major changes; other believe rapid changes bring in new stages of development.
Difference between Nature and Nurture.
- Nature; Heredity
- Nurture; Environmental influences
What social cognitive (Bandura) theorist suggest children learn through?
- Children learn through observing other people, reading, and viewing characters in the media.
- A theory that emphasizes observational learning.
What are the ethical responsibilities for a study?
- Not to use methods that may do physical/ psychological harm
- Must inform the participants the purpose of the research/ methods
- Must provide voluntary consent to participate in the study
- Participants may withdrawal from the study at any time/ reason
- Participants should be offered information about the results of the study
- Must present their research plans to a committee of the colleagues and get approved
- The identity of the participants are to remind confidential
What is heredity?
The passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Number of chromosomes in each: the sperm and egg and a fertilized egg.
- Human cells contain 46 chromosomes organized into 23 pairs.
Difference between genotype and phenotype.
- Genotype is the set of alleles for a gene an organism has.
- Phenotype is the physical appearance of the trait; or the trait expressed.
Difference between homozygous and heterozygous alleles.
- Homozygous: having 2 identical alleles
- Heterozygous: having 2 different alleles
Difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes.
- Autosomes are chromosomes that determine traits of the organism.
- Sex Chromosomes determine the sex of the organisms.
Relationship between dominant and recessive traits.
- Dominant traits are expressed, while recessive traits are not expressed when the gene involved have been paired with dominant genes.
Difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
- Monozygotic: twins that are from 1 zygote and splits into 2 ( Identical Twins)
- Dizygotic: twins that have 2 zygotes ( Paternal Twins)
What causes Down syndrome? What chromosomes is involved? Who is at higher risk for having a baby with the disorder?
- Down syndrome is caused by having an extra chromosome.
- The probability of having a child with Down syndrome increases with age of the parents.
Sikle cell anemia- Which population is at the highest right for the disorder?
- African Americans
Why and when would a couple seek genetic counseling?
- Receive information about the couples heritage
- Determine whether their child might develop a genetic abnormality
Difference between ultrasound, amniocentesis, chorionic villus sample which one gives the earliest results?
- Ultrasound; sound waves too high pitch to be sensed by human ear.
- Amniocentesis; drawing/ examines fetal cells sloughed off into amniotic fluids to determine the presence of various disorders.
- Chorionic Sample; prenatal detection of genetic abnormalities that samples the membrane enveloping the amniotic sac/ fetus.
What is in vitro fertilization?
- This is taking multiple eggs and sperms outside of a human and trying to fertilize them outside of the human then out the fertilized egg back in the mother.
What is the definition of infertility? Approximately number of couples in the US that are infertile?
- Failure to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse.
- 40% of couples are infertile
Development/ characteristic of the germinal/ zygote, embryo, and fetus stages.
- The germinal stage begins at conception when the sperm and egg cell unit in 1 of 2 fallopian tubes gamete with male tenets.
- The zygote stage is when a fertilized egg cell that results from the union of a feeble gamete with a male gamete.
- The embryo is the period after implantation.
- The fetus is created when the baby begins to form.
Percentage of zygotes that are miscarried and what is the cause for this?
- 25 % of women who know they are pregnant results in a miscarriage
Role of umbilical cord, placenta, and the amniotic sac.
- The umbilical cord is a tube that is connected to the fetus and to the placenta
- Placenta; an organ connected to the uterine wall/ fetus.
- Serves as a relay station between mother and the fetus
- Amniotic sac ( contain the fetus)
Role of maternal nutrition- what is recommended?
- Increase caloric intake
- Take prenatal
- Eat protein
What is maternal obesity linked to?
- Low birthweight
- Retardation of brain development
- Cognitive deficiencies
- Behavioral problems
- Cardiovascular diseases
Biologically what is the best time for women to have children?
- A women's 20's
What are complications associated with women giving birth later in their 30's-40's?
What is a teratogen?
- Any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
What is meant by a critical period in prenatal development?
- This is the time when the child's organs start developing
Which period of prenatal development has the greatest likelihood of producing major defects in bodily structure if exposed to teratogens?
- The period when the organs are developing.
What concerns should a pregnant woman have related to the following:
- AIDS/ HIV: During childbirth, blood vessels in the mother/ baby rupture, enabling an exchange of blood and transmission of HIV.
- Syphilis: May cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and or congenital syphilis.
- Smoking: May cause the mother to give birth to a smaller baby.
- Alcohol: leads to deficiencies/ deformities
* Also likely to develop Feral Alcohol Syndrome
Characteristics of the stages of labor.
- The first stage of child birth is the longest.
- The second is when the mother gives birth.
- The third stage it the placental stage.
What is a fetal monitor used for?
- Instruments are used continuously record the heartbeat of the fetus during labor.
What are Braxton Hicks contractions?
- They are preterm or false labor contractions.
Techniques associated with natural/ Lamaze childbirth.
- Breathing/ Relaxation exercises
What is a dula?
- A woman who is trained to assist another woman during child birth?
What is the percentage of C-section birth in the US?
What precautions might a woman with genital herpes opt for?
- Ask did the doctor not to break the water bag.
- Also not to use a fetal scalp monitor.
* It can puncher a whole in the babies scalp.
What is meant by crowning or breeching birth?
- Crowning is the babies head is starting to emerge bit by bit during each contraction.
Difference between premature and small-for-date/low birthweight babies.
- Premature; born prior to 47 weeks.
- SMFD; neonates who are small for their age.
Symptoms and causes of postpartum depression.
- Lack of energy
- Suicidal thoughts
Difference between APGAR scale and Neonatal Behavioral Assessment scale.
- APGAR scores are based of the child's health.
- NBA scores is based off of the child behavior.
What are reflexes?
- Unlearned, organized involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli.
How developed is a newborn's sense of smell?
- Children can start being able to small 4 days after being born.
What taste do infants prefer?
- Sweet/ Salty
How developed is the infant's vision?
- Blurry until 6 months
What state of sleep do newborns spend the most time in?
Why is REM sleep so important for babies?
- REM sleep is important because protein is developed while the child is sleeping.
What are the possible consequences of ignoring a newborns cries?
- The baby can be hungry or in pain
Types of cries- what is the most common reason for an infant to cry?
- Pain is the most likely why the baby is crying.
How do infant sleep patterns change?
- The older the child gets, the longer they will sleep during the night.
Which mother's habits are at higher risk for having a child die of SIDS?
- Black woman
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