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Psychobiology (PS 326) Quiz 7
Terms in this set (78)
Prick pain is bright, relatively short pain that is well-localized and subserved by ________ fibers.
_______ occurs whenever pain sensations that originate in one part of the body are perceived as coming from another part of the body.
With the ________, the patient reports sensations coming from a limb that has been amputated.
The receptors for kinesthesis that are found in the joints are __________.
The enlarged portion of the semicircular canals that contain the receptor hair cells is called the _________.
__________ are calcium carbonate particles that are found in the gelatinous substance covering the receptor hair cells in the utricle and saccule.
The vomiting center is located in the ________.
Henry Head utilized the term _________ sensitivity to refer to kinesthesis, pressure, and specific light touch.
The _________ tract in the spinal cord carries impulses of pain, temperature, and diffuse light tough from the trunk and limbs to the thalamus.
The ________ nucleus of the posteroventral nucleus of the thalamus receives somesthetic and kenesthetic impulses from the face and head.
Somesthetic fibers are divided into two general groups: __________
A and C fibers
A fibers are _________.
C fibers are ____________.
A fibers are subdivided into ________________.
A-beta fibers and A-delta fibers
A-beta fibers subserve _____________.
pressure and specific light touch
A-delta fibers subserve ______________.
temperature and pain
C fibers subserve _____________.
pain, temperature, and diffuse light touch
Thermal fibers are invariably _____________.
warm fibers or cold fibers
Which fibers respond to temperatures below physiological zero?
Which fibers respond to temperatures above physiological zero?
Physiological zero = _________
35 degrees C
Paradoxical cold occurs between what two temperatures?
45 degrees C and 50 degrees C
Paradoxical warmth occurs between what two temperatures?
25 degrees C and 30 degrees C
With paradoxical cold, what occurs?
A cold fiber is set into excitation by a hot stimulus.
What paradoxical warmth, what occurs?
A warm fiber is set into excitation by a cold stimulus.
Why does persistence of cold occur?
Because cold receptors respond better at 25 degrees C than 15 degrees C. Hence, while the skin is warming toward normal temperatures, the number of impulses in cold fibers actually increases.
The threshold for _________ is less than that for ________.
Warm spots are less _______ (less repeatable) than cold spots.
___________ is typically greater and faster for a warm stimulus than a cold stimulus.
Branches of fibers serve ___________ of the skin.
A needle touched to any part of the skin is likely to stimulate the branches of ___________ fiber.
more than one
________________ is bright, relatively short, well-localized pain.
____________ is long lasting, not well-localized pain. It is subserved by __________.
Dull pain; C fibers
A person feels pain when they are cut, or when a stimulus is too _____________.
hot or cold
What chemicals cause pain when they are injected?
Histamine, acetylcholine, and serotonin.
The fact that children who sustain amputation of a limb do not develop the phantom limb experience supports which hypothesis?
Cortical areas that normally mediate the sensations from that limb are now devoid of afferent input and act independently to produce conscious sensations.
Usually visceral pain is referred to ____________.
the skin or muscle (EG Angina Pectoris)
What does the term "short circuit" refer to?
Sensory neurons from the place originating the pain and sensory neurons from the area of referred pain enter the same dorsal spinal root or cranial nerve.
Muscle tension headaches are caused by ___________.
constantly contracted muscles in the head or neck
During a migraine attack, the cerebral arteries __________.
How do analgesics act?
By raising the pain threshold.
Morphine and cocaine work primarily on __________.
The receptors that give conscious sensations of limb and jaw position and movement are found mainly in the _______.
What receptors are found in the joints?
The vestibular apparatus consists of three ___________ which connect to a saclike structure (the utricle).
The _______ connects with another large sac structure (the saccule).
Each canal is filled with _______ and enlarges at its base where it attaches to the utricle.
What type of cells are the receptor hair cells?
Specialized epithelial cell-neuron combinations.
The hair cells are covered by a jelly-like mass called the ______.
The receptor cells + their gelatinous covering containing otoliths = ___________________.
The receptor cells of the utricle and saccule are sensitive to _____________________.
up/down movement, tilt of the head, and linear acceleration
Fibers leave the vestibular apparatus traveling in the __________________________.
vestibular component of cranial nerve 8.
What is the immediate destination of the fibers leaving the vestibular apparatus?
The vestibular nuclei of the medulla.
What places do the fibers travel to from the vestibular nuclei?
The oculomotor center (cranial nerve nucle 3, 4, and 6), the vomiting center of the medulla, the cerebellum, the reticular formation, and the spinal cord (via the vestibulospinal tract).
When facing unilateral damage to the vestibular apparatus, head movement causes __________.
disorientation, distress, nausea, and vomiting.
The fact that these symptoms disappear in a relatively short time indicates some ability of the CNS to _______ to the new situation of vestibular input coming from only one side.
There is significant evidence linking the vestibular system with __________________.
With bilateral damage, which of the symptoms of unilateral damage appear?
_______________________ is responsive to kinesthesis, pressure, and specific light touch.
Protopathic sensitivity is responsive to _______________.
pain, temperature, and diffuse light touch
Who proposed the separation into Epicretic and Protopathic sensitivity?
Kinesthesis is ___________
What path does kinesthesis take?
3-1-2; travels to the PVN; travels via the medial lemniscus tract to the gracilis and cuneate; travels via the gracilis and cuneate tract into the dorsal root, and out to the pacinian corpuscles.
What path do pressure and specific light touch take?
3-2-1; travels to PVN; travels via the ventral spinothalamic tract to the spinal root, and out to the pacinian corpuscles, meissner's corpuscles, and ruffini endings.
What path do pain, temperature, and diffuse light touch take?
3-1-2; travels to PVN; travels via the lateral spinothalamic tract to the spinal root, and out to the free nerve endings, tactile disks, and basket endings.
Somesthetic and kinesthetic impulses from the face and head enter the brain directly over cranial nerves, especially ______________________.
cranial nerve 5 (trigeminal)
Upon approaching the brain, the trigeminal nerve divides into _________, which go to nuclei in the brain.
3 main roots
The ______________ of the medulla receives impulses of temperature, pain, and diffuse light touch.
The sensory nucleus of the ______ receives impulses of pressure and specific light touch.
The ____________ of the midbrain receives impulses of kinesthesis.
The _______________________ terminates in the arcuate nucleus of the PVN.
From the arcuate nucleus, impulses ascend to _______________.
areas 3-1-2 in Broadmann's Classifications
When all pathways reach the _____________, there is no longer any segregation according to function.
The PVN is largely arranged on a ________________.
The PVN projects upward to ________.
Area 3-1-2 is laid out ___________.
The relative space given to different areas of the body corresponds to the ___________________ of the body area.
Which body part gets a lot of space in the cortex?
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