Chapter 9 (The Church)
Terms in this set (9)
The spread of heresy in the eleventh and twelfth centuries can be traced to
both criticism of the clergy and to new intellectual and spiritual demands on the part of the laity.
Far more powerful in their own day, though not destined to survive the Middle Ages, were the
Cathari, or Albigensians, named for the town of Albi in Languedoc.
They believed that two deities, a god of light (NT), and a god of darkness (OT) fought for the supremacy of the universe. They led lives of rigorous asceticism, abstaining from sex and meat. They denied all value to the sacraments and priesthood with the established Church.
In 1215, Pope Innocent III summoned some 1,500 prelates to attend this council. The council defined the sacraments; imposed an obligation of yearly confession and communion; and defined the dogma of transubstantiation, according to which the priest, in uttering the words of consecration at Mass, transforms the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
The Fourth Lateran Council
A special papal court instituted by Pope Gregory IX for the purpose of rooting our heresy.
The Inquisition had a terrible effect upon the medieval Church because
it associated the papacy with persecution and bloodshed.
A priest from Castile named Dominic began to preach among the Albigensians of Languedoc in about 1208. He insisted that his followers - whose mission was to preach - live in poverty and support themselves by begging. This was known as the
Mendicant, or begging order
Mendicant orders were known as friars rather than monks because
they were to live with the laity rather than in the seclusion of the monastery and did not follow the Benedictine Rule.
Probably the greatest saint of the Middle Ages, and possibly the most sensitive poet of religious emotion; He adopted a life of poverty; he recognized papal authority; His Order of Friars Minor grew rapidly with over 5000 members in ten years becoming the largest order of the Church. The Order came to include not only the second order of nuns, but also a third order of laypersons.
Francis of Assisi
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