38 terms

Final: Evolution Quiz

Based on the evolution quiz. Use to study for the biology final
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heritable variation
when members of a population have different traits that are passed on genetically to offspring
Malthusian Parameter
populations should expand exponentially but they don't
struggle for survival
members of a population compete for existing resources
survival of the fittest
when an organism has traits that allow it to survive and reproduce better than others
natural selection
the environment creates selective pressures that influence which organisms survive and reproduce to pass on their own genes
fossil
preserved remains or traces of previously living organisms
homologous structure
a body part with the same basic structure and embryonic origin as that of another organism, though not necessarily the same in function
ontogeny
the steps of embryonic development of an organism
phylogeny
the history of organismal lineages as they change through time
speciation
the process by which new types of organisms arise
Lamarckian Inheritance
when traits are acquired by an organism during its lifetime and are passed on to its offspring
mutation
a change in the DNA sequence by changing, adding, or deleting one or a few nucleotides
gene shuffling
the recombination of different genes within the genome
gene rearrangement
the duplication or translocation of a segment of DNA within the genome
allele frequency
the fraction of different forms of a given gene in all of the members of a population
stabilizing selection
when natural selection weeds out the extremes
disruptive selection
when natural selection favors the extremes
genetic drift
a change in the gene frequencies due to chance events
behavioral isolation
when differences in courtships, appearance, chemicals or vocalizations prevent reproduction
geographic isolation
when populations are prevented from mating due to rivers, oceans, mountains, continental drift, etc.
temporal isolation
when members of a population are prevented from mating because they have different mating seasons
reproductive isolation
when fertilization or embryonic development is prevented or sterile offspring are produced
adaptive radiation
when several very different groups of organisms are produced from a common ancestor by natural selection
convergent evolution
when organisms not closely related independently evolve similar traits
coevolution
when two different species evolve simultaneously to benefit eachother
punctuated equilibrium
when a population shows little evolutionary change but then rapid events of speciation occur
mass extinction
a rapid, sharp decrease in many species
example of adaptive radiation
the variety of species of Darwin's finches
example of convergent evolution
birds and bats flying
example of coevolution
structure of red flowers and structure and behavior of bees and birds
example of natural selection
the same genetic code for all living species
example of disruptive selection
gray rabbits are easily detected in front of black or white rocks
example of homologous structure
the wing of a bird and a person's arm
example of reproductive isolation
a mule produced from a donkey and a horse is sterile
example of genetic drift
rabbits being hit by cars in the countryside
example of stabilizing selection
newborn babies have intermediate weights, not too heavy or too tiny
example of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
the ability to mathematically detect whether evolution is occurring in a population
ontogeny -> recapitulates -> phylogeny
(in order) the stages of embryonic development mimic evolutionary changes, such as the presence of gill slits during human development