Chapter 6 - The Expansion of American Industry
Terms in this set (69)
A license that gives an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention for a set period of time.
The amount of goods and services created in a given period of time.
Railway extending from coast to coast.
A process for making steel more efficiency, patented in 1856.
Production of goods in great amounts.
Derived from Darwin's theory of natural selection, the belief that society should do as little as possible to interfere with people's pursuit of success.
A market structure dominated by only a few larger, profitable firms.
Complete control of a product in the national economy.
Loose association of businesses that make the same product.
Process of gaining control of the many different businesses that make up all phases of a product's development.
economies of scale
Phenomenon that as production increases, the cost of each item produced is often lowered.
The process of bringing together many firms in the same business to form one large company.
A group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Law passed by Congress in 1890 that outlawed any combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce.
System in which workers are paid not by the time worked, but by the number of items they produce.
Factory where employees work long hours at low wages and under poor working conditions.
division of labor
Way of producing in which different tasks are performed by different persons.
An economic and political philosophy that favors public (or social) instead of private control of property and income.
A union for laborers devoted to a specific craft.
Process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers.
Union that organizes workers from all crafts in a given industry.
Negative term for a worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers.
A radical who opposes all government.
1886 labor-related violence in Chicago
1892 strike in Pennsylvania against Carnegie Steel
1894 railway workers' strike that spread nationwide.
Henry Clay Frick
George M. Pullman
John D. Rockefeller
The _____ contributed to the building of the transcontinental railroad by granting loans and land grants to the railroad companies
The U.S. government
These inventors helped to make electricity widely available
Thomas Edison, George Westinghouse
Name 3 new technologies that increased industrial growth in the late 1800's.
Possible answers: electricity, telephone/telegraph, bessemer process
This method of producing steel reduced the cost of the steel process
This was the first large steel suspension bridge built in the U.S.
What is a patent? Also: be able to give an example!!
License to make, use, or sell an invention (Ex: iPhone, computer, etc)
What was the transcontinental railroad?
A railway extending from coast to coast
Which 2 companies built the transcontinental railroad
Union Pacific & Central Pacific
What challenges did the Union Pacific (the plains side of the transcontinental rr) face?
flash floods, storms, Irish workers
What challenges did the Central Pacific (west coast) railway face?
Sierra Nevada mountains, Granite tunnels, inches in a day, winter storms
What was the difference between a "robber baron" and a "captain of industry"?
Robber baron: Stole from public, limited industry, mistreated workers.
Captain of Industry: expanded industry, paid & treated workers well
This way of thinking believed that only the fittest will survive and government should stay out of the affairs of business
Because of industrialization, how was wealth distributed in the U.S.?
Large gap between rich & poor, AND wealth was held by a few big industrialists
The amount of goods & services produced during a given time
This industrial giant created his monopoly by creating a trust out of all of his allied companies
John D. Rockefeller - Standard Oil & Trust
This law was created to limit monopolies from "cutting off competition"
Sherman Antitrust Act
Who believed that ones wealth should be given away? He ALSO donated 80% of his wealth
Andrew Carnegie - Gospel of Wealth
What is vertical consolidation? How is Andrew Carnegie an example of this?
He bought/owned everything needed to make steel - bought coal mines, steel plants, and so on - owned all stages of the process
When several companies are manages as a single unit
A loose association of businesses that make the same product
Survival of the fittest applied to man
As production increases, the cost decreases
Economies of scale
In the late 1800s, why did the children of some families have to work?
Needed the money to survive
What is it called when a sweatshop worker is paid by the number of items made or completed?
Piecework system (ex: paid by the number of shirt sleeves completed)
Factories improved efficiency and lowered production costs by using ____
This group or type of worker was paid the most
Producing a product in a large amount
Which labor union organized ONLY skilled workers?
American Federation of Labor
Which labor union allowed skilled AND unskilled workers? (Hint: they also allowed women to join!)
Knights of Labor
How did the Pullman Strike (Pullman Town) end?
President Cleveland sent in federal troops to stop the strike
The countries first major strike - The Great Railway Strike of 1877 - began when workers went on a strike for ______
Lower wages/paycuts, Double headers
Why was the AFL opposed to letting women join the labor union?
Women drive wages down
What were yellow dog contracts? Why did employers make workers sign these contracts?
Workers would not join labor unions - employers did not want organized labor unions in their shop
Some workers in the United States turned to socialism, but most turned to ______ or _______
Changing existing political system OR labor unions
At the Homestead Steel Mill strike, who did striking steel workers try to assassinate? What was the outcome?
Henry Frick - the supervisor of the plant. Union workers lost the support of the public when this was discovered
After the Pullman Strike, the federal government refused to recognize this group for the next 30 years