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21 terms

Evolutionary Fitness

Chapter 7 bold terms
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Allocation
The division of limited time, energy, or materials among competing functions or requirements
Bet Hedging
Reducing the risk of mortality or reproductive failure in a variable environment by adopting an intermediate strategy or several alternative strategies simultaneously, or by spreading one's risk over time and space
Central place foraging
Foraging behavior in which acquired food is brought to a central place, such as a nest with young
Determinate Growth
a growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow only until it reaches maturity
Dormancy
A physiological inactive state,such diapause, hibernation, or seed dormancy when conditions do not allow the organism to function normally
Diapause
Temporary interruption of development or physiological function usually associated with a period of unfavorable environmental conditions
Fecundity
the number of offspring produced per reproductive episode
Hibernation
a state of winter dormancy involving lowered body temperature and metabolism
Indeterminate growth
a growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow, usually at a decreasing rate after maturity
Iteroparity
a life history characterized by multiple reproductive episodes
longevity
the life span of an individual
maturity
acquisition of reproductive function or the age at which this occur
optimal foraging
a theoretical concept that seeks to explain foraging behavior in terms of the fitness costs and benefits of each possible alternative behavior
parity
The number of episodes of reproduction in an individual's lifetime
photoperiod
the length of the daylight period in a 24 hour day
progammed death
death as part of a semelparous life history
proximate factors
an aspect of the environment that the organism uses as a cue for behavior, but which does not directly affect the organism fitness
semel-parity
a life history characterized by a single terminal reproductive episode
senescence
gradual deterioration of physiological function with age, leading to increased probability of death, aging
Trade-off
a consequence of devoting limited time, energy, or materials, to one structure, function, or behavior at the expense of another
Ultimate factors
an aspect of the environment that directly affects the fitness of an organism