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Chapter 7 bold terms


The division of limited time, energy, or materials among competing functions or requirements

Bet Hedging

Reducing the risk of mortality or reproductive failure in a variable environment by adopting an intermediate strategy or several alternative strategies simultaneously, or by spreading one's risk over time and space

Central place foraging

Foraging behavior in which acquired food is brought to a central place, such as a nest with young

Determinate Growth

a growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow only until it reaches maturity


A physiological inactive state,such diapause, hibernation, or seed dormancy when conditions do not allow the organism to function normally


Temporary interruption of development or physiological function usually associated with a period of unfavorable environmental conditions


the number of offspring produced per reproductive episode


a state of winter dormancy involving lowered body temperature and metabolism

Indeterminate growth

a growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow, usually at a decreasing rate after maturity


a life history characterized by multiple reproductive episodes


the life span of an individual


acquisition of reproductive function or the age at which this occur

optimal foraging

a theoretical concept that seeks to explain foraging behavior in terms of the fitness costs and benefits of each possible alternative behavior


The number of episodes of reproduction in an individual's lifetime


the length of the daylight period in a 24 hour day

progammed death

death as part of a semelparous life history

proximate factors

an aspect of the environment that the organism uses as a cue for behavior, but which does not directly affect the organism fitness


a life history characterized by a single terminal reproductive episode


gradual deterioration of physiological function with age, leading to increased probability of death, aging


a consequence of devoting limited time, energy, or materials, to one structure, function, or behavior at the expense of another

Ultimate factors

an aspect of the environment that directly affects the fitness of an organism

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