- the life blood of politics is money: allows you to get the media attention you want, do campaigning
- Mark Hanna was McKinley's political advisor
- McKinley was from Ohio
- he was very patriotic about Ohio
- strong supporter of Garfield, but he wasn't truly responsible for that
- then Mckinley comes along (he was a labor lawyer defending labor laws)... Republican member of congress (governor of Ohio) and Hanna became his booster and almost single-handingly funded the primary campaign
- Hanna went to NY (headquarters for campaign was in Chicago and NY) and became the money guy
- Charles Dawes: wealthy, young, made it big in natural gas, from Chicago (evanston), part of McKinley's team to get Illinois delegates to vote for him, he ran "campaign for education" new standards for printed materials (flyers, posters, newspaper articles sent out to Republican friendly newspapers... materials in 16 different languages to reach minorities)
- Dawes in charge of spending the money given by Hanna
- Hanna went to NY based corporations (started with Rockefeller and said we have to win this election, if we don't we will face economic disaster.. see Bryan's game plan)
- William Jennings Bryan: populist party nominee, got the nomination based on a speech he gave at a convention, called the cross of gold about how the gold standard was killing the working class/agricultural class
- Bryan personally traveled tens of thousands of miles ... ended up being a close election, even with him not having a lot of money (only Democratic publisher to support Bryan was William Randolph Hearst most were big business and supported McKinley)
- Bryan wanted more money in circulation/ available for working class, wanted currency on silver standard because silver was more plentiful .... but if you put more money into the economy you increase inflation
-McKinley paid for his press through the money donated by the big corporations
** system made into a science: money is life blood of politics
- Stevenson hated TV but the scene in one of his ads (set in his living room) was based off the set of Nixon's checkers speech (looked like library)
- showed what television can do, reaching people from their living room
- Nixon was VP running mate of Eisenhower then, made a name for himself as an outspoken opponent of communism (Nixon was the conservative view compared to Eisenhower who could almost swing either way)
- Nixon was new rule as attack dog: talking about how corrupt the Truman administration was (high gov officials in scandal)
- story in Democratic newspaper about a fund that was paying for Nixon's travel, fund was not unethical or secret, but the story treated it as though it was
- New York Hearld Tribune editorial said Nixon should pull his name from the VP ticket
- Eisenhower didn't speak up for him or comment on it
- Republican party said they would pay for time for him to go on the air, assumed he would use that time to say he was stepping off the ticket, same day story on Stevenson having a similar fund broke, Nixon goes on the air with speech and attacks Stevenson and took a little shot at Eisenhower
- He said it would be morally wrong if any of the $18,000 went to his personal use, if he did the contributors favors or if it was done secretly...that normally when charged with something candidates admit to it generally without detail or deny it wholeheartedly... but he would not be doing that
- then after revealing a lot of his personal bank account info (how much he makes, loans he has) he gets to Check speech ...
- after he got nomination... he did get one gift, man heard his kids talking about how they'd love a dog, and then he heard from Union Station in Baltimore that there was a package for him... it was a Cocker Spaniel dog named Checkers. And, he said his kids loved it, so no, he was not going to get rid of it
- after the speech he said send a telegram to Republican party telling them what he should do, stay or get off the ticket
- over ⅔ said stay! only .4% said get off.
- first president to have regular press conferences
- started off as weekly affairs
- wanted to be a leader-interpreter
- envisioned president to lead like a Prime Minister
- wanted less separatism between him and Congress
- wanted to interpret views for them, in a way he thought the people wanted to be led
- reinitiated the idea of the State of the Union being a speech not a written report
- now expect president to go before Congress and read
- used to be a written report read by House to Senate and clerks
- envisoned that he could ask reporters questions, knowing about conditions from their own cities/states and then gather information that way but reporters didn't give information he wanted
- they wanted to ask questions too!
- so they slowly didn't happen as often
- noteworthy for WW1
- formed the Committee on Public Information
- George Creel headed ^ (was a mukracker journalist), supportive of Wilson
- influential, used all kinds of media platforms, lots of pamphlets in different languages (75 million pamphlets), had writer buddies who were patriotic, had a speaker's bureau with lots of speakers around the country that worked for the Creel Commission and gave speeches about war effort (750,000 given), produced motion pictures with Hollywood stars,
- Sedition Acts were passed then as well
- Crisis of Confidence speech: fled Washington and went to Camp David to work on speech, said people are down on themselves and country, if we are more positive things will look up, confidence founded our nation, link between generations ... we have always believed in something called progress
- after giving the speech we all needed to realize we should work toward the future... but days later Carter asked his whole cabinet to resign (blaming everyone but himself people thought)
- the general discussion about this speech then changed .... weak Carter blaming us.... nicknamed the Malaise speech.
- Carter's press secretary was jokingly talking with a reporter, was saying this funny thing happened... the president got chased around the pond by a rabbit, Carter was a fisherman, this rabbit was in the water ... rabbits do not swim, it tried to get in the boat with Carter, the official white house photographer was in the bushes and got pictures of it... reporter gets hands on photo, and story ran "Carter is even afraid of Rabbits."
- this went against the effort to make him like every other guy
was a document released by the United States Republican Party during the 1994 Congressional election campaign. Written by Newt Gingrich and Richard Armey, and in part using text from former President Ronald Reagan's 1985 State of the Union Address, the Contract detailed the actions the Republicans promised to take if they became the majority party in the United States House of Representatives for the first time in 40 years.
was signed by all but two of the Republican members of the House and all of the Party's non-incumbent Republican Congressional candidates.
On the first day of their majority in the House, the Republicans promised to bring up for vote, eight major reforms:
1 require all laws that apply to the rest of the country also apply to Congress;
2 select a major, independent auditing firm to conduct a comprehensive audit of Congress for waste, fraud or abuse;
3 cut the number of House committees, and cut committee staff by one-third;
4 limit the terms of all committee chairs;
5 ban the casting of proxy votes in committee;
6 require committee meetings to be open to the public;
7 require a three-fifths majority vote to pass a tax increase;
8 guarantee an honest accounting of the Federal Budget by implementing zero base-line budgeting.
policy changes: They mainly included a balanced budget requirement, tax cuts for small businesses, families and seniors, term limits for legislators, social security reform, tort reform, and welfare reform.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 558 U.S. 310 (2010), is a US constitutional law case, in which the United States Supreme Court held that the First Amendment prohibits the government from restricting political independent expenditures by corporations, associations, or labor unions
Roberts explained why the Court must sometimes overrule prior decisions. Had prior Courts never gone against stare decisis, for example, "segregation would be legal, minimum wage laws would be unconstitutional, and the Government could wiretap ordinary criminal suspects without first obtaining warrants". Roberts' concurrence recited a plethora of case law in which the court had ruled against precedent. Ultimately, Roberts argued that "stare decisis...counsels deference to past mistakes, but provides no justification for making new ones"
He is making speeches, writing a book and commenting on the news. He is telling people how he would have voted in recent cases, and he is singling out former colleagues for praise and criticism.
By the end of his almost 35 years on the Supreme Court, Justice Stevens was not only the leader of its liberal wing, but also its most canny strategist. Now, off the court, he is building bridges to his more conservative former colleagues even as he highlights the fault lines among them.
In a speech this month in New York, Justice Stevens said he would have voted with Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr., a conservative justice, in Snyder v. Phelps, an 8-to-1 decision protecting protests at military funerals on First Amendment grounds. Justice Alito was alone in dissent.