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Terms in this set (68)
the basic, bead-like unit of DNA packing in Eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound around a protein core composed of 2 copies of each of 4 types of histones.
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a 5-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
nucleotide triphosphate (NTP):
assembles DNA and RNA, contain ribose
in bacterial DNA, a sequence of nucleotides near the start of an operon to which an active repressor can attach. The binding of the repressor prevents RNA polymerase from attaching to the promoter and transcribing the genes of the operon.
a unit of genetic function found in bacteria and phages, consisting of a promoter, an operator, and a coordinately regulated cluster of genes whose products function in a common pathway.
one of the ribosome's 3 binding sites for tRNA during translation. The P site holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide. (P stands for peptidyl tRNA.)
PCR (polymerase chain reaction):
a technique for amplifying DNA in vitro by incubating it with specific primers, a heart-resistant DNA polymerase, and nucleotides.
a small circular, double stranded DNA molecule that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome. (also found in some eukaryotes, like yeasts)
a change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair
poly A tail
: A sequence of 50-250 adenine nucleotides added unto the 3' end of a pre-mRNA molecule.
bonding of two or more monomers to form a polymer.
an intial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene.
AN enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer using the parental DNA strand as a template.
a short stretch of RNA with a free 3' end, bound by complementary base pairing to the template strand, that is elongated with DNA nucleotides during DNA replication.
a short segment of DNA synthesized away from the replication fork on a template strand during DNA replication, many of which are joined together to make up the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA.
cell build proteins transcription then translation
a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds to RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place.
a DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources.
a regulatory gene is a gene that codes for a protein (repressor) that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes.
used for biological inheritance, copying DNA; each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand.
formed when parental strands separate at origin. Along with the replication bubble, two forks are also formed.
Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where the parental strands are being unwound and new strands are growing.
replicates from a simple origin of replication on DNA or RNA molecule.
transcription is usually on but can be inhibited/repressed when a specific small molecule binds allosterically to a regulatory protein.
a protein that inhibits gene transcription. In prokaryotes, repressors bind to the DNA in or near the promoter. In eukaryotes, repressors may bind to control elements within enhancers, to activators, or to other proteins in a way that blocks activators from binding to DNA.
restriction enzyme (endonuclease
that recognizes and cuts DNA molecules foreign to a bacterium 9such as phage genomes). The enzyme cuts at specific nucleotide sequences (restriction sites).
an enzyme encoded by certain viruses (retro-viruses) that use RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
complex of rRNA and protein molecules that functions as a site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of a large and a small subunit. In eukaryotic cells, each subunit is assembled in the nucleolus.
a nucleic acid that is similar to DNA but is single stranded and has the base uracil instead of thymine
an enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription.
the most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins makes up ribosomes.
Sanger DNA sequencing
after a gene is cloned, the complete nucleotide sequence can be determined bu using an automated sequencing machine. (RT-PCR)
a type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand.
ordered list of objects. They have to be in a certain order, different combinations mean different things. (UAG, AUG)
single-strand binding proteins
a protein that binds to the unpaired DNA strands during DNA replication, stabilizing them and holding them apart while they serve as templates for the synthesis of complementary strands of DNA.
1 stand of RNA molecules unlike DNA (double stranded)
a technique that enables specific nucleotides sequences to be detected in a sample of DNA. It involves gel electrophoresis of DNA molecules and their transfer to a membrane (blotting), followed by nucleid acid hybridization with a labeled probe.
a large complex made up of proteins and RNA molecules that splice RNA by interacting with the ends of an RNA intron, releasing the intron and joining the 2 adjacent exons.
initiation codon (AUG), signals the protein-synthesizing machinery to begin translating mRNA at that location.
3 codons that don't designate amino acids. Mark end of translation (UAA, UAG, UGA)
the reactant on which an enzyme works.
If a DNA segment under twist strain were to be closed into a circle by joining its two ends and then it is allowed to move freely, the circular DNA would contort into a new shape, such as a simple figure-eight. Such a contortion is a supercoil.
an enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells.
a type of damage (covalent linking of thymine bases that are adjacent on DNA strand) caused by UV light
the synthesis of RNA using a DNA template
the conversion of a normal cell to a cancerous cell. A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic formation encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.
an aberration in chromosome structure resulting from attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome; during protein synthesis, the third stage in the elongation cycle when the RNA carrying the growing polypeptide moves from the A site to the P site on the ribosome; the transport of organic nutrients in the phloem of vascular plants.
element that moves within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate.
tRNA (transfer RNA):
an RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
that turns on by itself, it starts the transcribing process and can be turned off by the trp repressor.
is an analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract.
an individual with the phenotype most commonly observed in natural populations; also refers to the phenotype itself.
in gene cloning, this is used to tell whether a cell has the B- galacatoslidase present.
OH- hydroxyl end- you can add bases to this end
phosphate end- can't add bases to this end
holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain
a protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of a gene
an organic molecule processing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino
acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus,
N-terminal end or amine-terminus) refers to the start of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group (-NH2).
a family of related enzymes that carries out the correctly matching up of tRNA and amino acids
a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial
infections since 1961. Until the introduction of ampicillin by the British company Beecham, penicillin therapies had only been effective against Gram-positive organisms such as staphylococci and streptococci. Ampicillin (originally branded as 'Penbritin') also demonstrated activity against Gram-negative organisms such as H. influenzae, coliforms and Proteus spp.
a protein secreted by plasma cells that binds to a particular antigen; also called
immunoglobulin. All antibody molecules have the same Y-shaped structure and in their monomer form consist of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains.
a nucleotide triplet (at one end of the tRNA), base-pairs with a
complementary codon mRNA
the opposite arrangement of the sugar-phosphate backbones in a DNA
one of most fundamental features of a DNA sequence. It is given by
the percentages of 4 different nucleotides, all taken on one strand. We denote them by A, G, C, T.
The expression of genes is influenced by how the DNA is packaged in
chromosomes, in a structure called chromatin. Base modifications can be involved in packaging, with regions that have low or no gene expression usually containing high levels of methylation of cytosine bases.
of a protein or polypeptide is the end of the amino acid chain terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH). When the protein is translated from messenger RNA, it is created from N-terminus to C-terminus. The convention for writing peptide sequences is to put the C-terminal end on the right and write the sequence from N- to C-terminus
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