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Elizabeth Pears University of Akron Fall 2013 Module: 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting


in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person realizes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

free association a

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thought, wishes, feelings, and memories. information of which we are unaware


theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts


T or F ... Freud believed that our personality was formed during adulthood

F-believed it was formed at a very young age

T or F...Freud noticed that symptoms were not always explained by neurological impariments


forgotten memories that can easily be recalled


personality produced by ego's struggle to balance demands of the id with the superego

personality structure

contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle


this principle that the id uses demands immediate gratification

pleasure principle

this part of our personality structure contains our conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgements, and memories. like the referee. mediates


the ego relies on this principle that satisfy's the id's desirers in a healthy way

reality principle

the moral compass; that forces the ego to consider the ideal; strives for perfections; produces negative feelings of guilt


the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

psychosexual stages

pleasure centered around the mouth; 0-18 months


pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control


pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings


dormant sexual feelings


maturation of sexual interests; from puberty on


according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealous and hatred for the rival father

Oedipus Complex

the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos


a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved


Freud would say that no capacity for intimacy would relate back to an unresolved issue in what psychosexual stage?


Freud would say that being overly organized would relate back to an issue in what psychosexual stage?


in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

defense mechanism

defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing wishes from consciousness; underlies all defense mechanisms


defense mechanism where one goes back to an earlier stage in development (when new sibling is born, older sibling starts bed wetting again)


defense mechanism where one switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites

reaction formation

defense mechanism where you disguise anxiety ridden impulses by attributing them to others


defense mechanism where you unconsciously create self justifying explanations to hide real reasons for actions


defense mechanism where you divert unacceptable impulses towards a more acceptable target


having detailed memories of high school, but remembering little about the boyfriend you broke off your engagement


a little boy reverts to the oral comfort of sucking his thumb in the car on the way to school


instead of kissing someone you liked on the playground, you push them into the mud

reaction formation

If I cheat on my taxes, then others probably do too


I didn't clean my dorm cause I had too much homework to do....


A teacher gives you an F on a test so you take it out on your roommate


T or F...Neofreudians doubted the sex and aggression were all consuming motivations


developed the idea of the inferiority complex where behavior is driven by efforts of overcome childhood feelings of inferiority

Alfred Adler

came up with the idea of the collective unconscious

Carl Jung

concept of a shared, inherited, reservoir of memory traces from out species' history

collective unconscious

T or F...Adler and Horney believed that childhood social tensions were more crucial then sexual tensions


a personality test such as the Rorschach inkblot test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

projective test

T or F...the inkblot test had high reliability and validity


Which Rorschach derived scores have produced validity?

hostility and anxiety

the most widely used projective test; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations

Rorschach inkblot test

the perspective with emphasized important co a positive self concept, human potentials, and growth

Humanistic perspective

the ability to lead a rich and productive life and to become a loving and self accepting person

self actualization

who developed the idea of self actualization ?


Maslow believed that we are motivated by a ....... ?

hierarchy of needs

5 parts of the hierarchy of needs (maslow's)

physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, self esteem, self actualization

Three parts of Carl Rogers' growth-promoting climate

genuineness, acceptance, and empathy

only receive affection if you behave and meet expectations

conditional positive regard

total acceptance toward another person despite their failings and actions

unconditional positive regard

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"


Rogers said that we fell anxiety if there is a discrepancy between what two selfs?

ideal and actual

1. concepts are vague
2. very self indulgent
3. underestimates the human capacity for evil

Criticisms of the Humanistic perspective

1. Personality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood
2. Freud underemphasized peer influence on the individual
3. gender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age
4. few testable parts of this perspective
5. repression is a rare mental response to trauma

Criticisms of the Psychoanalytic Perspective

this perspective stated that problems stem from conditions of worth that parents place on children

Person-Centered Perspective (carl rogers)

Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:

a. Individualism and collectivism.
b. The collective unconscious and the personal unconscious.
c. The actual self and the ideal self.
d. An internal locus of control and an external locus of control.


For humanistic psychologists, many of our attitudes and behaviors are ultimately shaped by whether our ________ is ________ or ________.

a. Ego; strong; weak
b. Locus of control; internal; external
c. Personality structure; introverted; extraverted
d. Self-concept; positive; negative


While attending college, Saeb impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on "wine, women, and song." Freud would have suggested that Saeb shows signs of a(n):

a. Strong ego.
b. Inferiority complex.
c. Weak id.
d. Electra complex.
e. Weak superego


Which theory has been most severely criticized for offering after-the-fact explanations without advancing testable predictions?

a. humanistic theory
b. trait theory
c. psychoanalytic theory
d. social-cognitive theory


As her parents became increasingly more abusive toward her, Winifred began, with apparent sincerity, to emphatically express her great admiration for her parents. Winifred's behavior illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of:

a. regression.
b. projection.
c. displacement.
d. rationalization.
e. reaction formation.


characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation


brain activity scans indicate that extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is low or high?


this theory is concerned with describing, classifying and measuring numerous ways in which individuals may differ from one another

trait theory

What are the big 5 personality traits?

openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

this big 5 personality trait is most related to creativity


a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to asses selected personality traits

personality inventory

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality test. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

projective tests are ________, but personality inventories are _________

subjective; objective

people with this big 5 personality trait are organized, careful and disciplined


big 5 trait: soft hearted, trusting, helpful


big 5 trait: calm, secure, self satisfied


big 5 trait: imaginative, preference for variety, independent


big 5 trait: sociable, fun-loving, affectionate


what 2 big 5 traits rise during middle adulthood?

conscientiousness(increases in 20s) and agreeableness(increases in 30s-60s)

our traits influence (3)

health, thinking, and job performance

what is bad about the trait theory?

underestimates how behavior can change between situations; does not predict behavior in real life situations; can fake desirable responses

views behavior as influenced by its interaction between people's traits and their social context

social cognitive perspective

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition and environment

reciprocal determinism

according to Bandura, what three things shape personality?

learning, cognition, and social behavior

the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless

personal control

the perception that chance or outside forcers beyond your personal control determines your fate

external locus of control

the perception that you control your own fate

internal locus of control

T or F people with internal locus of control are more likely to cope with stress, be academically successful, feel less depressed, have better health


self control replenishes with ______ and becomes stronger with _______

rest; exercise

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

learned helplessness

in Nursing homes, prisons, and factors, what has proven to help moral and psychological health?

when people are given opportunities to control their environment

in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions


overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and blunders

spotlight effect

T or F people with higher self esteem have fewer sleepless nights


one's feelings of high or low self worth

self esteem

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

self serving bias

People who are made to feel insecure often become more _____ of others in order to impress them with their own brilliance


emphasizes the importance of social responsibility and social roles; likely to avoid embarrassing others


most important characteristics distinguish you as uniquely different from others; these cultures are more likely to experience divorce, loneliness, homicide, stress related diseases and the self serving bias


In the decades after college, people's level of openness tends to ________ slightly and their level of agreeableness tends to ______ slightly.

decrease; increase

Because she is often rejected by her parents, Sally mistrusts other people and treats them with hostility, which leads to their rejection of her. This cycle of rejection, mistrust, hostility, and further rejection illustrates what is meant by:

reciprocal determinism

What do Maslow's and Roger's theories have in common?

a. they are both stage theories
b. they both focal on unconscious motivation
c. they have a positive view of human nature
d. they fit in the learning/cognitive approach


Freud suggested that there are three interacting systems that can explain the dynamics of the human mind. These three systems refer to:

the id, ego, and superego

A psychology instructor asks his class to write down all of their thoughts and feelings about themselves. This exercise is a way to describe:

a) the unconscious.

b) their self-concepts.

c) unconditional positive regard.

d) theory of mind.


Anxious people tend to be on the lookout for potentially threatening events; that is, they perceive the world as threatening. Their personalities shape how they interpret and react to events. This is known as:

a) reciprocal determinism.

b) unconditional positive regard.

c) social facilitation.

d) self-actualization.


He proposed the social-cognitive perspective.

a) Rogers

b) Bandura

c) Freud

d) Maslow


he Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):

a) is scored subjectively.

b) was designed to assess "normal" personality tendencies.

c) was empirically derived.

d) picked test items from a small pool that failed to discriminate between groups.


The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n):

a) objective test.

b) subjective test.

c) projective test.

d) selective test.


The stability of personality during adulthood best evaluated by:

a) Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

b) the self-reference phenomenon.

c) the trait perspective.

d) psychoanalysis.


This defense mechanism occurs when people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. This is known as:

a) rationalization.

b) projection.

c) reaction formation.

d) repression.


This Neo-Freudian proposed the popular idea of the inferiority complex and believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority.

a) Maslow

b) Jung

c) Adler

d) Horney


Lately, Harold and Grant cannot get along. Harold often expects the worst of people, and yesterday he thought Grant was mad at him. As a result, Harold ignored Grant's phone calls and other attempts at conversation, angering Grant. But in truth, Harold created the situation to which he was reacting. This is an example of:

a) attributional style.

b) reciprocal determinism.

c) social loafing.

d) linguistic determinism.


_____________ is the scientific study of optimal human functioning. This field aims to discover and promote the strengths that allow people and communities to thrive.

a) Developmental psychology

b) Positive psychology

c) Industrial-Organizational psychology

d) Personality psychology


ongoing patterns, thoughts, feelings and actions that are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional

psychological disorders

different from what most people do; depends on the culture's social norms


causes the individual distress or harm


when people lack the ability to carry on with daily life (go to work, have normal relationships etc_


the concept that disease in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in most cases cured, often through treatment in a hospital

medical model

evolution, individual genes, brain structure and chemistry are what type of influences that can lead to a psychological disorder?


stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood related perceptions are what type of influences that can lead to a psychological disorder?


roles, expectations and definitions of normality are what type of influences that can lead to a psychological disorder?

social cultural

when you start to believe you have certain disorders that you are reading about online or in magazines

medical student syndrome

__ percent of americans need psychological help?


a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders that is used so that psychologists can give the same diagnoses


North American health insurance companies require a ___________ diagnosis before they pay for therapy


3 reasons why mental health professionals use labels:

communicate; comprehend underlying causes; and discern effective treatment

What are the negative effects of labeling people with psychological disorders?

can lead others to make assumptions and judge; can't get jobs etc

at what time of life do mental disorders strike?

early adulthood

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

mood disorders

what is the common cold of psychological disorders?

major depressive disorder

a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

major depressive disorder

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, widely optimistic state


a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

bipolar disorder

T or F poets, entertainers, artists, and composers are more likely to have bipolar disorder than architects, designers, and journalists


T or F if your identical twin has bipolar disorder you are more likely to have it


women are more than _____ as vulnerable to depression as men


what is the most severe behavioral response to depression?


suicide rates are higher for people who are...

wealthy, nonreligious, non married, drink alcohol, white, older, homosexual

who is more likely to succeed at committing suicide? men or women?


T or F mood disorders do not run in families


what are 2 neurotransmitters that play a role in depression?

norepinephrine and serotonin

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotion and actions


when someone thinks that another person is trying to harm them or out to get them, this is called ....

paranoid delusion

when someone thinks they are the son of God or the Queen of England this is what type of delusion?

bizarre delusion

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders


sensory experiences without sensory stimulation; most often auditory


when a person can not attend to just one piece of information at a time

selective attention

proper grammatical structure but people will just start saying random words; common symptom of schizophrenia

word salad

when someone with schizophrenia shows no emotion and is monotone

flat affect

types of behaviors seen with schizophrenia include..?

repetitive movements or being motionless

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