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in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person realizes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
free association a
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thought, wishes, feelings, and memories. information of which we are unaware
theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
T or F ... Freud believed that our personality was formed during adulthood
F-believed it was formed at a very young age
personality produced by ego's struggle to balance demands of the id with the superego
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle
this part of our personality structure contains our conscious perceptions, thoughts, judgements, and memories. like the referee. mediates
the ego relies on this principle that satisfy's the id's desirers in a healthy way
the moral compass; that forces the ego to consider the ideal; strives for perfections; produces negative feelings of guilt
the childhood stages of development during which the id's pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealous and hatred for the rival father
the process by which children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved
Freud would say that no capacity for intimacy would relate back to an unresolved issue in what psychosexual stage?
Freud would say that being overly organized would relate back to an issue in what psychosexual stage?
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing wishes from consciousness; underlies all defense mechanisms
defense mechanism where one goes back to an earlier stage in development (when new sibling is born, older sibling starts bed wetting again)
defense mechanism where you disguise anxiety ridden impulses by attributing them to others
defense mechanism where you unconsciously create self justifying explanations to hide real reasons for actions
defense mechanism where you divert unacceptable impulses towards a more acceptable target
having detailed memories of high school, but remembering little about the boyfriend you broke off your engagement
a little boy reverts to the oral comfort of sucking his thumb in the car on the way to school
instead of kissing someone you liked on the playground, you push them into the mud
developed the idea of the inferiority complex where behavior is driven by efforts of overcome childhood feelings of inferiority
concept of a shared, inherited, reservoir of memory traces from out species' history
T or F...Adler and Horney believed that childhood social tensions were more crucial then sexual tensions
a personality test such as the Rorschach inkblot test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
the most widely used projective test; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations
Rorschach inkblot test
the perspective with emphasized important co a positive self concept, human potentials, and growth
the ability to lead a rich and productive life and to become a loving and self accepting person
5 parts of the hierarchy of needs (maslow's)
physiological, safety and security, love and belonging, self esteem, self actualization
total acceptance toward another person despite their failings and actions
unconditional positive regard
1. concepts are vague
2. very self indulgent
3. underestimates the human capacity for evil
Criticisms of the Humanistic perspective
1. Personality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood
2. Freud underemphasized peer influence on the individual
3. gender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age
4. few testable parts of this perspective
5. repression is a rare mental response to trauma
Criticisms of the Psychoanalytic Perspective
this perspective stated that problems stem from conditions of worth that parents place on children
Person-Centered Perspective (carl rogers)
Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:
a. Individualism and collectivism.
b. The collective unconscious and the personal unconscious.
c. The actual self and the ideal self.
d. An internal locus of control and an external locus of control.
For humanistic psychologists, many of our attitudes and behaviors are ultimately shaped by whether our ________ is ________ or ________.
a. Ego; strong; weak
b. Locus of control; internal; external
c. Personality structure; introverted; extraverted
d. Self-concept; positive; negative
While attending college, Saeb impulsively and carelessly spends all his time and money on "wine, women, and song." Freud would have suggested that Saeb shows signs of a(n):
a. Strong ego.
b. Inferiority complex.
c. Weak id.
d. Electra complex.
e. Weak superego
Which theory has been most severely criticized for offering after-the-fact explanations without advancing testable predictions?
a. humanistic theory
b. trait theory
c. psychoanalytic theory
d. social-cognitive theory
As her parents became increasingly more abusive toward her, Winifred began, with apparent sincerity, to emphatically express her great admiration for her parents. Winifred's behavior illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of:
e. reaction formation.
brain activity scans indicate that extraverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is low or high?
this theory is concerned with describing, classifying and measuring numerous ways in which individuals may differ from one another
What are the big 5 personality traits?
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to asses selected personality traits
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality test. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
what 2 big 5 traits rise during middle adulthood?
conscientiousness(increases in 20s) and agreeableness(increases in 30s-60s)
what is bad about the trait theory?
underestimates how behavior can change between situations; does not predict behavior in real life situations; can fake desirable responses
views behavior as influenced by its interaction between people's traits and their social context
social cognitive perspective
the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless
the perception that chance or outside forcers beyond your personal control determines your fate
external locus of control
T or F people with internal locus of control are more likely to cope with stress, be academically successful, feel less depressed, have better health
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
in Nursing homes, prisons, and factors, what has proven to help moral and psychological health?
when people are given opportunities to control their environment
in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance and blunders
People who are made to feel insecure often become more _____ of others in order to impress them with their own brilliance
emphasizes the importance of social responsibility and social roles; likely to avoid embarrassing others
most important characteristics distinguish you as uniquely different from others; these cultures are more likely to experience divorce, loneliness, homicide, stress related diseases and the self serving bias
In the decades after college, people's level of openness tends to ________ slightly and their level of agreeableness tends to ______ slightly.
Because she is often rejected by her parents, Sally mistrusts other people and treats them with hostility, which leads to their rejection of her. This cycle of rejection, mistrust, hostility, and further rejection illustrates what is meant by:
What do Maslow's and Roger's theories have in common?
a. they are both stage theories
b. they both focal on unconscious motivation
c. they have a positive view of human nature
d. they fit in the learning/cognitive approach
Freud suggested that there are three interacting systems that can explain the dynamics of the human mind. These three systems refer to:
the id, ego, and superego
A psychology instructor asks his class to write down all of their thoughts and feelings about themselves. This exercise is a way to describe:
a) the unconscious.
b) their self-concepts.
c) unconditional positive regard.
d) theory of mind.
Anxious people tend to be on the lookout for potentially threatening events; that is, they perceive the world as threatening. Their personalities shape how they interpret and react to events. This is known as:
a) reciprocal determinism.
b) unconditional positive regard.
c) social facilitation.
he Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI):
a) is scored subjectively.
b) was designed to assess "normal" personality tendencies.
c) was empirically derived.
d) picked test items from a small pool that failed to discriminate between groups.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n):
a) objective test.
b) subjective test.
c) projective test.
d) selective test.
The stability of personality during adulthood best evaluated by:
a) Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
b) the self-reference phenomenon.
c) the trait perspective.
This defense mechanism occurs when people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. This is known as:
c) reaction formation.
This Neo-Freudian proposed the popular idea of the inferiority complex and believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority.
Lately, Harold and Grant cannot get along. Harold often expects the worst of people, and yesterday he thought Grant was mad at him. As a result, Harold ignored Grant's phone calls and other attempts at conversation, angering Grant. But in truth, Harold created the situation to which he was reacting. This is an example of:
a) attributional style.
b) reciprocal determinism.
c) social loafing.
d) linguistic determinism.
_____________ is the scientific study of optimal human functioning. This field aims to discover and promote the strengths that allow people and communities to thrive.
a) Developmental psychology
b) Positive psychology
c) Industrial-Organizational psychology
d) Personality psychology
ongoing patterns, thoughts, feelings and actions that are deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
when people lack the ability to carry on with daily life (go to work, have normal relationships etc_
the concept that disease in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and in most cases cured, often through treatment in a hospital
evolution, individual genes, brain structure and chemistry are what type of influences that can lead to a psychological disorder?
stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood related perceptions are what type of influences that can lead to a psychological disorder?
roles, expectations and definitions of normality are what type of influences that can lead to a psychological disorder?
when you start to believe you have certain disorders that you are reading about online or in magazines
medical student syndrome
a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders that is used so that psychologists can give the same diagnoses
North American health insurance companies require a ___________ diagnosis before they pay for therapy
3 reasons why mental health professionals use labels:
communicate; comprehend underlying causes; and discern effective treatment
What are the negative effects of labeling people with psychological disorders?
can lead others to make assumptions and judge; can't get jobs etc
a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
T or F poets, entertainers, artists, and composers are more likely to have bipolar disorder than architects, designers, and journalists
suicide rates are higher for people who are...
wealthy, nonreligious, non married, drink alcohol, white, older, homosexual
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions and inappropriate emotion and actions
when someone thinks that another person is trying to harm them or out to get them, this is called ....
when someone thinks they are the son of God or the Queen of England this is what type of delusion?
proper grammatical structure but people will just start saying random words; common symptom of schizophrenia
the presence of inappropriate behaviors, disorganized speech, and exhibiting inappropriate emotions are what type of symptoms of schizophrenia?
a toneless voice, absence of appropriate behaviors, expressionless face and catatonia are what types of symptoms of schizophrenia?
type of schizophrenia where one has delusions or auditory hallucinations; doesn't have disorganized behavior/thought or the flat affect
type of schizo where the person is immobile, extreme negativism, parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements
what brain abnormalities are exhibited in people with schizo?
dopamine overactivity; prenatal virus infections; shrinkage of cerebral tissue; smaller cortex and thalamus
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking or other frightening sensations
shyness taken to an extreme; fear of being scrutinized by others, avoid potentially embarrassing situations, and avoid parties, eating out etc.
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and or actions
obsessive compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and or insomnia that lingers for four or more weeks after a traumatic events
post traumatic stress disorder
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extreme challenging circumstances and life crises
post traumatic growth
what explanation for anxiety disorders states that the learning perspective and biological perspective play a role?
who said that anxiety disorders are a result of repressed painful/unacceptable thoughts and feelings
what perspective explains that anxiety disorders can come from the evolutionary theory and proof from twin studies?
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separates from pervious memories, thoughts, and feelings
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities
dissociative identity disorder
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior pattern that impairs social functioning
a personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing even toward friends and family members
anti social personality disorder
personality disorder that expresses eccentric behaviors such as emotionless disengagement
schizoid personality disorder
personality disorder where one expresses anxiety, such as fearful sensitivity to rejection
avoidant personality disorder
people with what personality disorder experience less fear and autonomic arousal in stressful situations?
antisocial personality disorder
treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems uses techniques from various forms of therapy
the goal of this type of therapy was to bring out repressed feelings; wanted to reduce the id-ego-superego conflicts
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self insight
a variety of therapies that aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
a humanistic therapy in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathetic envionrment to facilitate clients growth
client centered therapy
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people to things they fear and avoid
type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety triggering stimuli
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
an operant conditioning procedure in which people can earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the token for various privileges or treats
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting, based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy
cognitive behavior therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
what are the negative side effects of antipsychotic drugs?
tardive dyskinesia: involuntary movement of facial muscles
drugs used to depress the CNS; useful when combined with other therapies; have a calming effect but can be very addictive
drugs used to treat depression and anxiety; alters the availability of neurotransmitters; full benefit can take 4 or more weeks
primary drug to treat bipolar disorder; can be toxic and needs to be closely monitored
mood stabilizing medication
therapy used to treat SEVERE depression; used only when drug therapy is ineffective
surgically cutting nerves connecting frontal lobes to the emotion control center of the brain
The id stores energy that is _______ (conscious or unconscious) and operates according to the _______ principle
the ego is the _________ (conscious/unconscious) part of the personality that tries to satisfy the id's impulses according to the _____ principle
the ego attempts to protect itself against anxiety through the use of ________ _______
Which of the following was presented in the text as evidence of biological influences on anxiety disorders?
Identical twins often develop similar phobias.
Brain scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal unusually high activity
in brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behavior.
Brain pathways resulting from fear-learning experiences create easy inroads for more fear
All of these facts were presented.
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