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apush - chapter 12 terms and people

natural increase

An increase in the population of black slaves due to reproduction instead of importation.

"sold south"

A term used to describe when a slave owner sold a slave because they were not fit to work or were disobedient. The farther south is usually related with harder conditions on slaves.

gang-labor system

Slaves worked in groups overseen by whites whose purpose was to enforce work norms and increase productivity.

southern yeoman

The majority of the southern population. Many did not own slaves and were opposed to free labor.

planter elite

Made of about 5% of the total population, this high class of the south controlled about 90% of the wealth in the south up until the civil war.

Stephen Austin

A colonizer of Texas. Austin was one of the leading figures in Texan independence from Mexico.


A Texan fort (once a Spanish mission) that withstood Mexican troops for 13 days until all soldiers were killed.

secret ballot

Votes were no longer announced to the public. It was an option to remain anonymous when voting.

Southern Democrats

Southern Democrats supported slavery and used scare tactics to suppress the popular vote.

Gullah dialect

Creole dialect of English. Mostly spoken by African American populations living on coastal islands.

fictive kinship

A system in which slaves of no direct relation to each other maintained a community.

Denmark Vessey

A slave who purchased his freedom and plotted to overtake Charleston (but failed).

Benjamin Banneker

An African American scholar who wrote to Jefferson in hopes of persuading him that slavery is wrong.

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