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Carbon and molecular diversity

A carbon atom can form up to _____ covalent bonds


L-dopa is used to treat _____.

Parkinson's disease

What kind of effect does D-dopa have on Parkinson's disease?


Enantiomers are molecules that _____.

are mirror images

Geometric isomers are molecules that _____.

differ in the arrangement of their atoms about a double bond

Define the characteristics of the functional group alcohol.

is highly polar and may act as a weak acid

Define the characteristics of the functional group carboxylic acid.

acts as an acid

Define the characteristics of the functional group aldehyde.

may be a structural isomer of a ketone

Define the characteristics of the functional group thiol.

forms disulfide bonds

Define the characteristics of the functional group amine.

acts as a base

Define the characteristics of the functional group phosphate.

contributes a negative charge

Which chemical group is most likely to be responsible for an organic molecule behaving as a base?


How does carbon's electron configuration account for its ability to form large, complex, and diverse organic molecules?

valence of 4 electrons, strong tendency to form covalent bonds in order to fill valence, can bond to as many as 4 other carbon atoms, readily forms double bonds

How do carbon skeletons vary?

3 main classes: linear, branched, rings

How does the variations in carbon's skeleton contribute to the diversity and complexity of organic molecules?

structure relates directly to function, allowing many types of different bonds to occur

Describe the basic structure of a hydrocarbon.

C4H, double bond of 1 electron from H atom, and 1electron from valence of C

Why are hydrocarbon molecules hydrophobic?

majority of their bonds are non polar carbon-hydrogen linkages (petroleum, fats, asphalt)

Define the term structural isomer.

differ in the covalent arrangement of their atoms

Define the term geometric isomer.

have the same covalent arrangements but differ in their special arrangement

Define the term enantiomer isomer.

mirror images of each other

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