149 terms

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Terms in this set (...)

hardware
physical components of a computer system, can be touched and seen
central processing unit (CPU)
carries out the instructions of a computer program, primary component that executes computer's functions, every computer must have this
main memory (RAM)
aka primary storage, stores instructions and data that is needed by CPU, does not permanently store data (volatile), present in every computer system
file storage
data is saved in files and folders, and presented to both the system storing it and the system retrieving it in the same format
data storage
term for archiving data in electromagnetic or other forms for use by a computer or device
secondary storage
required to permanently store programs and data that is passed to main memory when CPU requires them, non-volatile
Hard Disk Drive
principle means of data storage on most computers, secondary storage
Solid State Drive
type of secondary storage, mass storage device, stores data using flash memory
input device
hardware that receives data from users, ex: keyboard, joystick
output device
hardware that conveys information to a user or another computer, ex: monitors, speakers, LCD screen
client/server architecture
network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server
server
computer that is dedicated to carry a specific task (processing) and "serves" the result to "client" systems, through networks
fat client
client with more processing power, more RAM, more data storage, ex: desktop, laptop
thin client
client with less primary storage, very lightweight, less complex, access applications from server over network instead of from local disk drive, ex: mobile, wearable, embedded
supercomputer
most powerful and fast computer, very expensive, mostly used by governments and large organizations, handle large datasets, used in military and research
mainframe
fast performing computers that are highly reliable, handle millions of transactions per day in a highly secured environment, used by airline systems and large banking institutions
midrange
less processing power than mainframes, many are required (server farm) to perform to a limited extent functions similar to mainframe computers, most are intel based
desktop
microcomputer system that has become a standard tool for business and the home, generally includes CPU, monitor and keyboard
laptop
easily transportable, lightweight microcomputers that fit comfortably into a briefcase
mobile
very lightweight, low-cost portable computer, optimized for cellular-network based functions (phone call/texting) and internet-based services (web browsing/email)
wearable
miniature computers that people wear under, with, or on top of their clothing, ex: Apple Watch
embedded
computer system that is part of a larger system and performs only peripheral functions (such as guidance or security) but no data processing function, ex: digital cameras, mobile phones, music players
dematerialization
software complexity is increasing, less physical components are needed to accommodate same amount of software
augmented reality
type of interactive, reality-based display environment that takes the capabilities of computer generated display, sound, text, and effects to enhance the user's real-world experience, ex: AURASMA, Snapchat filters
virtual reality
computer-generated environments or realities that are designed to simulate a person's physical presence in a specific environment that is designed to feel real, complete immersion
software
set of machine-readable instructions that directs a computer's processor to perform specific operations, cannot be seen or felt, developed by writing instructions in programming language, creating a "program", programs that control the operation of the hardware and the processing of data
system software
made up of security monitors, database management system, programing language
operating system
main system control program, required in all computers, provides interface between any other software and the hardware, ex: iOS, Android
graphical user interface (GUI)
interface through which a user interacts with electronic devices such as computers, hand-held devices and other appliances through icons, menus and other visual indicators to display info, ex: trashcan icon means delete
database management system
software that handles the storage, retrieval, and updating of data in a computer system, examples: Oracle, MS Access
programming language
vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer or computing device to perform specific tasks, examples: Python, C++
security software
general phrase used to describe any software that provides security for a computer or network, examples: Symantec, McAfee
application software
set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for a specific application
enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems
provide communication among functional areas in a business, ex: Quickbooks
transaction processing system
support the "real time" monitoring, collection, storage, and processing of data from the organization's day to day operations, ex: ATM, dorm entrance
inter-organizational system
connects two or more organizations, automated information system shared by more than one organization that allows info flow across organizational boundaries, ex: supply-chain management (Walmart)
electronic data interchange (EDI)
the electronic interchange of business information using a standardized format; a process which allows one company to send information to another company electronically rather than with paper
proprietary software
opposite of open-source software, copyrighted software owned by one entity
open-source software
software made available in source-code form at no cost to developers and users, source code ALWAYS available to general public, often developed in a public, collaborative manner, company does not own
computer network
2 or more computing devices connected to one another to establish communication and share resources, uses a common network protocol (Ethernet or TCP), comprised of hardware and software
bandwidth
transmission capacity of a network (rate of data transfer)
broadband
telecommunication signals of greater bandwidth, based on FCC definition
router
communication processor that routes messages within or among networks, chooses best route for data packet so that info is received quickly
ethernet
common LAN protocol, many organizations use 100-gigabit
telecommunications media
communication over a distance by cable, telegraph, telephone, or broadcasting (wired or wireless)
wired
transmission of data over a wire-based communication technology, ex: telephone, cable, internet
wireless
not necessarily mobile (cell towers don't get moved around), without wires
fiber optic cable
carries light signals at a much greater speed and distance than other cable technologies, used in high bandwidth networks, more secured, less degradation of signal
microwave
high bandwidth, inexpensive, requires line of sight, unidirectional
radio wave
high bandwidth, inexpensive, signal penetrates walls, omnidirectional
infrared wave
low bandwidth, inexpensive, requires line of sight, unidirectional, very short range
satellite wave
high bandwidth, expensive, requires line of sight, unidirectional, very long range
personal area network (PAN)
aka home area network, always needs a router (preferably wireless), does not have to be connected to the Internet
local area network (LAN)
high speed and relatively low cost, built with relatively inexpensive hardware, is secured so nothing leaves the building, employee can access any file over the LAN without having to encrypt it
metropolitan area network (MAN)
when this network is specifically designed for a college campus, it is sometimes called a campus area network (CAN), connects one major community
wide area network (WAN)
contains routers, which are the communication processor that route messages from a LAN/PAN to the Internet or across a WAN, such as the Internet
internet
type of wide area network, huge network of networks, collection of infinite number of connected computer devices that are spread across the World, no central agency manages nor owns it
domain name system (DNS)
how domain names are translated into IP addresses, also controls email delivery
top level domain
.com, .edu, .gov, .org, .it (Italy)
internet protocol
responsible for disassembling, delivering, and reassembling the data during transmission
IP address
unique address to each computer on the Internet that distinguishes it from all other computers
IPv4
ex: 135.62.128.91, nearly exhausted due to large growth in the use of smartphones
IPv6
ex: 2001:db8:85:85a:8d3:13:19:8ae:370:7345, has become the norm and is used for IoT, automobiles, drones, etc
browser
program that gives users a graphical way to access Web sites, universal way to access the World Wide Web, ex: safari, chrome
internet service provider (ISP)
company that provides internet connections for a fee
internet exchange point (IXP)
physical network access point through which major network providers connect their networks and exchange traffic, provide a commonplace for ISPs to exchange their Internet traffic
uniform resource locator
address of a resource on the Internet, indicates the location of a resource as well as the protocol used to access it
mobile computing
real-time, wireless connection between a mobile device and other computing environments, such as the Internet or an intranet
bluetooth
industry specification used to create small personal area networks
near field communication
has the smallest range of any short-range wireless networks and is designed to be embedded in mobile devices such as cell phones and credit cards
Wifi
wireless fidelity
Mifi
small, portable wireless device that provides users with a permanent Wi-Fi hotspot wherever they go
rogue access point
unauthorized access point to a wireless network
eavesdropping
when unauthorized users try to access data packets traveling on a network
evil twin attack
user connects to a malicious access point where attacker could intercept confidential information
war driving
locating WLANs while driving around a city or elsewhere
radio frequency (RF) jamming
person or a device intentionally (hospitals) or unintentionally interferes with your wireless network transmissions
voice over IP (VoIP)
digitizes analog voice signals, sections them into packets, and sends them over the Internet, ex: Skype, Whatsapp, GroupMe
search engine
computer program that searches for specific information by keywords and then reports the results
portal
web-based, personalized gateway to information and knowledge that provides relevant information from different IT systems and the Internet using advanced search and indexing techniques
location services
services offered through a mobile phone and take into account the device's geographical location
cloud computing
type of computing that delivers on-demand access for multiple customers to a shared pool of computing resources, provides clients with capabilities to store and process their data in either privately owned or third-party data centers
infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
offer remotely accessible servers, networks, and storage capacity, aka Hardware as a Service
platform as a service (PaaS)
customers rent servers, operating systems, storage, a database, software development through technologies, and network capacity over the Internet, allows the customer to run existing applications or develop and test new applications
software as a service (SaaS)
provide software that is specific to customers' requirements
utility computing
similar to a utility like electricity or water, charge for specific usage rather than a flat rate
private cloud
internal or corporate clouds, accessible only by a single group sharing the same purpose and requirements, such as all the business units within a single organization
public cloud
shared, easily accessible, multi-customer, multi-tenant IT infrastructures (Google Drive, iCloud), available non-exclusively to any entity in the general public
hybrid cloud
composed of public and private clouds that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models
vertical cloud
cloud infrastructure and applications for different businesses
e-Commerce
process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks, including the Internet
characteristics of e-commerce
no cash payment, accessible 24/7 from anywhere, requires electronic catalog
e-Business
includes e-commerce, plus customer service, collaboration, e-learning, and other electronic transactions, such as applying for a Driver License
click and mortar organization
organizations that are partial electronic commerce combining both virtual and physical dimensions, ex: macys.com
brick and mortar organization
organizations that exist as purely physical organizations, ex: an auto-body shop
virtual organizations
all dimensions or the organization are digital and they engage in pure electronic commerce only, ex: expedia.com
electronic catalog
backbone of most e-commerce sites, includes product database, search capability, presentation capabilities
live chat
a chat on an e-commerce website with a live person
chatbot
computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods
electronic cards
debit card, credit card, store-valued money cards (gift card)
person-to-person payment
enables two individuals, or an individual and a business, to transfer funds without using a credit card, ex: paypal, venmo
digital wallet/eWallet
application used for making financial transactions, apps can be on users' desktops or their smartphones
location-based services
provide information that is specific to a given location, ex: CM-map
location-based advertising
sending user-specific advertising messages concerning nearby, shops, malls, and restaurants to consumers' wireless devices
e-store
singular online store, ex: macys.com
e-marketplace
central, virtual market space on the Web where many buyers and many sellers can conduct e-commerce and e-business activities, ex: amazon.com
e-mall
collection of individual shops under one internet address, aka cybermall, ex: beneplace.com
disintermediation
reduction in the use of intermediaries between producers and consumers, for example by investing directly in the securities market rather than through a bank, cutting out the middleman
channel conflict
situation in which click-and-mortar companies face a conflict with their regular distributors when they begin selling directly to customers online, conflicts arise in areas such as pricing or resource allocation
mobile commerce
electronic commerce transactions that are conducted in a wireless environment, especially via the internet
internet of things (IoT)
ability to automatically transfer data over a network (like internet) without requiring human intervention, devices collecting data and sharing it with other devices, anything that can be connected will be
telemetry
wireless transmission and receipt of data gathered from remote sensors
radio frequency identifier
use tags with microchips containing data and antenna to transmit radio signals over a short distance to RFID reader
QR code
quick response code, 2-dimensional code, readable by dedicated QR readers and camera phones
improvements of QR code over traditional bar code
stores more info and data types could be numbers, texts, URLs, etc, more resistant to damage, smaller, readable in any direction
barcode
known as the Universal Product Code (UPC), made up of 12 digits batched in groups
limitations of barcodes
require line of sight to scanning device, identifies manufacturer and product but not actual term, doesn't have a unique identifier, potential problems because this could be ripped or lost and become unusable
social commerce
delivery of electronic commerce activities and transactions through social computing, supports social interactions and user contributions
social computing
combines social behavior and information systems to create value, users rather than organizations produce and control content
social intelligence
customer sentiment analytics, tracking customer activities
crowdsourcing
obtaining information or input into a task or project by enlisting the services of a large number of people, either paid or unpaid, typically via the Internet, ex: Doritos crashing the Super Bowl program
social analytics
companies closely monitor negative comments and proactively involve customers to resolve problems/issues for improved customer service
enterprise social network
business-oriented social network, ex: linkedin
social networking
application, access through a website, that supports social activities
peer to peer shopping model
high tech version of old fashioned bazaars and bartering systems, individuals use this model to sell, rent, barter online, ex: Poshmark
sharing economy
concept that highlights the ability and perhaps preference of individuals to rent or borrow goods rather than buy and own them
business intelligence
practice of taking large amounts of corporate data and turning it to usable information (actionable insight)
Microsoft Excel
most popular business intelligence tool
data mining
process of searching for valuable business information in a large database, data warehouse, or data mart
data warehouse
repository of historical data that is organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization
data mart
low-cost, scaled-down version of a data warehouse designed for end-user needs in a strategic business unit or individual department
data visualization
after data has been processed, the result can be shown to users in visual formats such as text, graphics, and tables
dashboards
provide rapid access to timely information, provide direct access to management report data, user friendly and supported by graphics
big data
extremely large data sets that may be analyzed to reveal patterns, trends, and associations relating to human behavior and interactions
actionable insight
information that can be acted upon or information that gives enough insight into the future that the actions that should be taken become clear for decision makers
predictive analytics
employs mathematical and statistical algorithms, neural networks, artificial intelligence, and other advanced modeling tools, create actionable predictive models based on available data
database (data file)
organized collection of interrelated information, allowing storage and retrieval of data
relational database model
entity (table)
instance (record)
attribute (field)
primary key
entity
person, place, thing or event, ex: student
NoSQL database
provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases
Hadoop
collection of open-source software utilities that facilitate using a network of many computers to solve problems involving massive amounts of data and computation. It provides a software framework for distributed storage and processing of big data using the MapReduce programming model
database management system
software to store, access, and administer databases, provides mechanisms to query the data, provides security and access controls
data quality
condition of a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables
data degradation
gradual corruption of computer data due to an accumulation of non-critical failures in a data storage device. The phenomenon is also known as data decay
data integrity
maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data
instance (record)
refers to each row (or record) in a relational table, which is a specific, unique representation of the entity
attribute (field)
represents characteristic of the entity, ex: major of student
primary key
field in a database that uniquely identifies each record so that it can be retrieved, updated and sorted, ex: C#
structure query language (SQL)
standard computer language for relational database management and data manipulation