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The great plague of the fourteenth century that arrived at Black Sea ports in 1347 via a merchant ship sailing from Caffa in the Crimea to Messina in Sicily; the ship carried rats infected with the plague.
The most identifiable form of the plague that spread to human by fleas that carry the infection from rodents to humans through a flea bite; it has an incubation of 2 to 10 days; it's symptoms are chills, high fever, headache, and vomiting. The next symptoms are swelling in lymph nodes of the groin and clotting blood under the skin, hence the name, "Black Death."
Plague also spreads through this variety in which the droplets containing the infection can spread directly from human to human. It causes death within 3 to 4 days. The real killer in the 1300s seems to have been this form of the plague, probably spread through coughing and was almost always fatal.
The Black Death was not so much an epidemic as a
pandemic (universal disease), striking an entire continent.
What was the impact on peasantry after the depletion of the populations.
Some historians considered the period the golden age of peasantry. Labor was in short supply which equaled higher wages for their labor; serfdom bonds were broken.
This process consisted of English landlords seeking to take advantage of the market (wool, skins, mutton, and cheese) by fencing large fields and converting them from plowland into sheep pastures and expelling the peasants or small herders who had formally lived there.
A new rural middle class brought on by the specialized agriculture who invested in land in the countryside and made considerable profits.
With increased competition, traders tried to protect themselves by creating restricted markets and establishing monopolies. These were used to limit membership, and some admitted only the sons of established masters. To keep prices high, some of these prohibited their members from hiring any women as workers because their wages were low.
Probably the best example of the monopolizing trend is the association of northern European trading cities; At its height, it included 70 or 80 cities; it excluded foreigners and could expel member cities who broke trade agreements.
the Hanseatic League
He was the first to print with movable metal type; he devised an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony that would melt at a low temperature, cast well in the die, and be durable in the press; this alloy is still the basis of the printer's art. His Bible, printed in 1455, is the first major work reproduced through printing.
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