58 terms

U.S. History Test 1

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Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution
1st amendment
protects freedom of speech, religion, assembly, press, and right to petition
2nd amendment
right to bear arms
3rd amendment
soldiers cannot be in an owners house without the owner's consent
4th amendment
you must have a warrant to search someone's property
5th amendment
people cannot be tried for the same crime twice
6th amendment
trials are guaranteed to be fast, fair, and the citizen is given the right to an attorney
7th amendment
citizens have the right to a trial, and the outcome cannot be re-examined
8th amendment
outlaws cruel and unusual punishment
9th amendment
even if basic rights do not exist in the Constitution, they are still protected
10th amendment
any power that is not given to the government is given to the people or the states
emancipation proclamation
issued by Lincoln and freed all slaves in areas still at war with the Union (September 22, 1862)
fugitive slave act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
kansas-nebraska act
a law that allowed voters in Kansas and Nebraska to choose whether to allow slavery
bleeding kansas
violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery people that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. this disrupted relations between the North and South, guaranteeing a civil war
monroe doctrine
warned European powers not to get involved in political matters in Central and South America, intended to show the U.S. was the only country that could influence the political matters
indian removal act
gave the president the power to force Native American tribes to move west of the Mississippi River (Andrew Jackson, 1830)
reconstruction era
the time after the Civil War between 1865 and 1877 when the South was rebuilt
13th amendment
abolished slavery in the United States
14th amendment
defines citizenship and protects certain rights of the people
15th amendment
states cannot prevent people from voting based on race
jim crowe laws
laws passed in the south after reconstruction enforcing the segregation of blacks and whites
plessy vs. ferguson
a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. the court ruled that segregation was legal as long as the facilities provided for both races were "equal"
burning of the white house during the war of 1812
British invasion of D.C in retaliation for the American attack on York in Ontario, Canada (James Madison)
monroe doctrine
warned European powers not to get involved in political matters (James Monroe)
trail of tears
Native Americans were forced to leave their lands and move out of the United States, causing many to die (Andrew Jackson)
louisiana purchase
United States gains land from France, west of the Mississippi River (Thomas Jefferson)
mexican war
United States gains one half of Mexico's territory. this territory became the states of Arizona, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming (James Polk)
shortest presidency
William Henry Harrison, president for 1 month, died after delivering his inaugural speech with no coat, got a cold, and died of pneumonia
secession of southern states
7 southern states left the Union after Abraham Lincoln was elected, leading to the civil war (Abraham Lincoln)
label all 36 states at the time of the civil war
**map
total war
a war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded
scorched earth policy
military tactic in which soldiers destroy everything in their path to hurt the enemy
manifest destiny
belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was going to happen
attrition
a wearing down over time
mobilization of an economy
act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war
unionist
a person who supported the Union during the entire Civil War period
abolitionist
a person who wanted to end slavery
border states
the states between the north and the south during the civil war (Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia, Delaware, Maryland)
fort sumter
where the first battle of the civil war was fought
gettysburg
bloodiest battle of the civil war, victory that stopped the second invasion
appomattox, virginia
place where the confederate army surrenders
Abraham Lincoln
used the telegraph to give orders to his officers, son died of typhoid fever which made him empathetic, wife struggled with mental illness, did not like slavery, but believed that whites were better than blacks
which side did Abraham Lincoln belong to?
North
which side did Jefferson Davis belong to?
South
which side did Robert E. Lee belong to?
Confederate commander (South)
which side did Ulysses S. Grant belong to?
Union commander (North)
ratify
to approve or give formal consent to a treaty, contract, or agreement, making it valid
radical
a person with extreme views
impeach
formally charge with wrongdoing
amnesty
an official pardon or forgiveness
what was the view of the Radical Republicans on the issues of the Reconstruction?
believed blacks were entitled to the same political rights and opportunities as whites. they also believed that the Confederate leaders should be punished for their roles in the Civil War
what was the view of President Johnson on the issues of the Reconstruction?
believed that whites were better than blacks, implemented a plan of Reconstruction that gave the white South a free hand in regulating the transition from slavery to freedom and offered no role to blacks in the politics of the South
what was the relationship between the Radical Republicans and President Johnson?
they were unwilling to work together and had different beliefs, Johnson kept vetoing the laws that they tried to pass (Feedmen's Buerau), so they extended its power and created the Civil Rights Act, which overturned the black codes and was passed
what were some Southern responses to Reconstruction?
Ku Klux Klan was formed against blacks and anyone who supported the civil rights fight
what was the significance of the election of 1868?
Union commander Ulysses S. Grant beat confederate commander Robert E. Lee, so Reconstruction fell in the hands of the Radical Republicans
thaddeus stevens
major leader of the Radical Republicans who believed in harsh punishments for the South
Extra Credit: be able to name the first 17 presidents
1. George Washington
2. John Adams
3. Thomas Jefferson
4. James Madison
5. James Monroe
6. John Quincy Adams
7. Andrew Jackson
8. Martin van Buren
9. William Henry Harrison
10. John Tyler
11. James Polk
12. Zachary Taylor
13. Millard Fillmore
14. Franklin Pierce
15. James Buchanan
16. Abraham Lincoln
17. Andrew Johnson
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