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Bill of rights Adopted in ____


President George Washington

He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.

Vice president John Adams

Because he ran second to George Washington in the elections of 1788 and 1792, he became the nation's first Vice President, limiting himself to presiding over the senate. Prior to his term as Vice President, he was a diplomat to European nations such as France, Britain, and the Dutch Republic.

Judiciary Act 1789

Created the federal court system, allowed president to create federal courts and to appoint judges

Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton

A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.'s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.

Secretary of state Jefferson

As Secretary of State for Washington's first term, Thomas Jefferson wanted to establish reciprocal trade agreements with European nations and deny it to the British. (Opposed Hamilton's plan.) This plan, in 1783, died in Congress, along with his other plans to try to manipulate the European countries. He resigned after the Citizen Genet scandal.

Secretary of War Knox

Henry Knox was the Secretary of War from 1789-1794, the first one under the United States Constitution. Prior to this, he fought in major Revolutionary battles, was in command of the West Point fortress in New York, and was the Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation.

Attorney General Randolph

Edmund Randolph had been General Washington's aide-de-camp at the outbreak of the Revolution, and served both as a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress and as Governor of Virginia from 1786-1788. He submitted the virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention. From 1789-1794 he served as U.S. Attorney General, and then succeeded Jefferson as Sec. of State. In 1795 he resigned form office after being falsely accused of receiving money from France to influence Washington's administration against Great Britain, although his name was eventually cleared by the french government.

Tariff of 1789

Designed to raise revenue for the federal government, resulted in a government surplus.

Bank of the United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

excise taxes

Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program.

Report on Manufactures

A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.

Implied powers

Powers inferred from the express powers that allow congress to carry out its "necessary and proper" functions. (Elastic clause.)

loose interpretation of constitution

Federalist belief that the government can do anything good for the nation ("necessary and proper") not forbidden by the Constitution (called the elastic clause)

strict interpretation of constitution

Strict and doctrinal interpretation of the Constitution and its justification. Thomas Jefferson favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution, which he interpreted as forbidding everything it did not expressly permit. In contrast, Hamilton favored a loose interpretation.

location of the capital

logrolling, D.C.: The nation's capital was originally located in New York, but later was transferred to Washington D.C.. Originally planned by Charles L'Enfant, the city consisted of beautiful walkways, tree lined streets, and masterfully architecture buildings.

Residence Act

Determined that a ten mile square area for the capital of the United States would be chosen along the Potomac River along the Virginia-Maryland boarder. The area was to be named the District of Columbia, after Christopher Columbus, and was selected by George Washington.

Benjamin Banneker

African-American scientist who taught himself calculus and trigonometry. He also helped design the capitol in Washington D.C.

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Washington's Farewell Address

Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.

Election of 1796

The person with the most electoral votes, John Adams, became President and the person with the second most electoral votes, Thomas Jefferson, became Vice President. A problem from this situation was that Adams and Jefferson belonged to different political parties, so political tensions were strong in the Executive Branch.


Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. Actually just a vocal, well organized minority. Favored Great Britain, feared mobocracy.

Democratic Republicans

Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank.

Society of Cincinnati

Group of Continental Army officers formed a military order in1783. They were criticized for their aristocratic ideals. (George Washington was member.)

Alien Acts

never enacted, banked on anti-French mentality, extended process of naturalization to fourteen years, president allowed to kick foreigners out at any time, President allowed to incarcerate aliens when at war

Sedition Acts

Limited the freedom of Press and Speech of the citizens. If a citizen criticized the government they were imprisoned and fined. Especially aimed at Republicans.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Election of 1800

Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.

Revolution of 1800

Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic-Republican, so it was called a "revolution."

Twelfth Amendment

Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President

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