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17 terms

Cha 5 quiz 2 words

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isotonic fluid
Any fluid having the same solute concentration as another fluid to which it is being compared.
kilocalorie
1,000 calories of heat energy amount needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1°C at a standard pressure.
Standard unit of measure for food's caloric content.
kinase
Enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to (phosphorylates) a substrate.
metabolic pathway
A stepwise sequence of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells construct, remodel, or break down organic molecules e.g., photosynthesis.
osmosis
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region where the water concentration is higher to a region where it is lower.
osmotic pressure
Amount of hydrostatic pressure that will prevent
osmosis from a hypotonic to a hypertonic fluid across a semipermeable membrane.
oxidationreduction reaction
Reaction in which one molecule accepts electrons (it becomes reduced) from another molecule (which becomes oxidized).
passive transport
Diffusion of a solute across a cell membrane, through the interior of a transport protein.
phosphorylation
Transfer of a phosphate group to a recipient molecule.
pressure gradient
Difference in pressure between two adjoining regions.
product
A molecule remaining at the end of a reaction.
reactant Molecule that enters a reaction.
second law of thermodynamics
Energy tends to disperse spontaneously.
selective permeability
Property of cell membranes some substances, but not others, can cross a cell membrane.
sodiumpotassium pump
Cotransporter that actively moves sodium out of a cell and passively moves potassium into it.
substrate
A reactant molecule that is specifically acted upon by an enzyme.
transition state
The state in a chemical reaction when reactant bonds are at the breaking point.
turgor
Hydrostatic pressure. Pressure that a fluid exerts against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that contains it.