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isotonic fluid

Any fluid having the same solute concentration as another fluid to which it is being compared.


1,000 calories of heat energy amount needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1°C at a standard pressure.
Standard unit of measure for food's caloric content.


Enzyme that transfers a phosphate group to (phosphorylates) a substrate.

metabolic pathway

A stepwise sequence of enzyme-mediated reactions by which cells construct, remodel, or break down organic molecules e.g., photosynthesis.


Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region where the water concentration is higher to a region where it is lower.

osmotic pressure

Amount of hydrostatic pressure that will prevent
osmosis from a hypotonic to a hypertonic fluid across a semipermeable membrane.

oxidationreduction reaction

Reaction in which one molecule accepts electrons (it becomes reduced) from another molecule (which becomes oxidized).

passive transport

Diffusion of a solute across a cell membrane, through the interior of a transport protein.


Transfer of a phosphate group to a recipient molecule.

pressure gradient

Difference in pressure between two adjoining regions.


A molecule remaining at the end of a reaction.
reactant Molecule that enters a reaction.

second law of thermodynamics

Energy tends to disperse spontaneously.

selective permeability

Property of cell membranes some substances, but not others, can cross a cell membrane.

sodiumpotassium pump

Cotransporter that actively moves sodium out of a cell and passively moves potassium into it.


A reactant molecule that is specifically acted upon by an enzyme.

transition state

The state in a chemical reaction when reactant bonds are at the breaking point.


Hydrostatic pressure. Pressure that a fluid exerts against a wall, membrane, or some other structure that contains it.

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