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chapter 8 bold terms

asexual reproduction

reproduction without the sexual union of gametes


a group of asexual individuals, all descended from the same parent and bearing the same genotype


in plants, the occurrence of male and female sexual organs on different individuals


having two sets of chromosomes

extra-pair copulation (EPC)

copulation between a paired female and a male that is not her mate


in sexual reproduction the union of male and female gametes to form a zygote

Frequency dependent selection

differential survival or reproduction that depends on the frequency of a phenotype in a population


a haploid cell that fuses with another of the opposite sex during fertilization to form a zygote


the primary sexual organ in which male or female gametes are produced

handicap principle

the idea that elaborate, sexually selected displays and adornments act as handicaps that demonstrate the generally high fitness of the bearer


a sex determination mechanism in which females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid, and male develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid


having a single set of chromosomes


an individual that has both male and female sexual functions


mating between closely related individuals

local mate competition

competition among males for mates that occurs at or near their place of birth, and hence potentially involves competition between close relatives

mate guarding

close association of males with their female mates to prevent their mating with other males

mating system

the pattern of mating between males and females in a population, including the number of simultaneous or seq. mates, the permanence of pair bonds and the degree of inbreeding


a series of two divisions by cells destined to produce gametes, involving pairing and segregation of homologous chromosomes and a reduction of chromosome number from diploid to haploid


in plants the occurrence of male and female sexual organs in different flowers on the same individual


a mating system in which each individual mates with only one individual of the opposite sex, generally involving a strong and lasting pair bond


mating between unrelated individuals in hermaphrodites, fertilization that takes place between games from different individuals

parasite mediated sexual reproduction

the idea that females choose male mates on the basis of secondary sexual characteristics that indicate their ability to resist parasite infection


reproduction without fertilization by male gametes, usually involving the formation of diploid eggs whose development is initiated spontaneously


a parasite especially a microorganism, that causes disease in its host

perfect flower

a flower having both male and female sexual organs


a mating system in which a female pairs with more than one male at the same time


a mating system in which a male pairs with more than one female or a female pairs with more than one male at the same time


a mating system in which a male pairs with more than one female at the same time

polygyny threshold

the degree of variation among territories at which the reproductive success of a female that pairs with a polygynous male holding a high quality territory is likely to equal that of a female that pairs with a monogamous male holding a lower territory quality


mating with many individuals of the opposite sex, generally without the formation of strong or lasting pair bonds

Red Queen hypothesis

the idea that evolutionary change in a pop. biological environment, especially in its predators and pathogens, applies continual selection pressure on that population

Runaway sexual selection

sexual selection by female choice that results in elaborate and costly secondary sexual characteristics in males

secondary sexual characteristics

traits other than the sexual organs themselves that distinguish males and females


self-fertilization: a form of sexual reproduction in which a hermaphroditic individual forms both male and female gametes and fertilizes itself

sex ratio

the ratio of the number of males and females within the progeny of an individual or within a population

sexual dimorphism

a difference in the phenotypes of males and females of the same species

sexual reproduction

reproduction by means of the union of two gametes to form a zygote

sexual selection

selection by one sex for specific characteristics in individuals of the opposite sex, usually exercised through mate choice

simultaneous hermaphrodite

an individual that both male and female sexual functions at the same time

sequential hermaphrodite

an individual that changes its sex during its lifetime

two-fold cost of meiosis

the 50% fitness cost of sexual reproduction that results in parents contributing only one-half of the genetic material of each of its offspring

vegetative reproduction

an asexual reproductive process by which shoots that sprout from the roots, rhizomes, or leaves of a plant give rise to separate individuals with genotypes identical to that of the parent plant


a diploid cell formed by the union of male and female gametes during fertilization

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