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Invertebrate Zoology Exam 1
Terms in this set (273)
1) Immune recognition systems evolution
2) Anti-tumor agent from sponges
3) Use of squid eyes for nerve monitering
What are some medical advances that have been made from studying invertebrates?
Meiosis, mitosis, regeneration, aging, programmed cell death, wound repair, embryonic development, evolutionary history of hemoglobin and ecdysteroid function, transmission of nerve impulses, biochemical basis for learning and memory
What are some areas of study that have been expanded from studying invertebrates?
Honey bees, 1st noticed in 2006
Thought to be caused by a combination of neonicotinoids in pesticides, loss of food, and the veroa mite
Give an example of colony collapse disorder:
Are most invertebrates marine, freshwater, or terrestrial?
Dessication, gravity, reproduction (can spawn in water), gas exchange is easier in water
Why are not many invertebrates successful on land?
The physical properties of saltwater, freshwater, and air
What plays a major role in determining the characteristics of invertebrates in their respective habitats?
Polar, high heat capacity, neutral pH, universal solvent, cohesion & adhesion, high conductivity
What are the physical properties of water?
What is something that allows insects and arthropods to be successful on land?
2.5% that of air
What is the oxygen carrying capacity of water as compared to air?
Does it take more or less time for molecules to across a given distance in water as compared to air?
Water is 800x denser and 50x more viscous
How much denser and more viscous is water than air?
Usually 20-50m, epipelagic zone
Marine primary production is limited to what depth?
The ratio of inertial to viscous forces
High R#= inertia plays a big role
Low R#= viscosity plays a big role
What is the Reynold's number?
Lower, will be more impacted by viscosity
Will a smaller organism have a higher or lower Reynold's number?
What is one way in which small invertebrates deal with the high viscosity of water?
Water is a universal solvent, and many agricultural and industrial wastes are also water soluble. The animals will be impacted by what is dissolved in the water
How are agricultural and industrial wastes harmful to invertebrates?
True or False: invertebrates have a high surface area to volume ratio
Forams, corals, urchins, snails, clams
What are some examples of invertebrates impacted by ocean acidification
ponds and lakes shrink/dry, varying temperatures, fast changes in pH
What are some causes of habitat unreliability in freshwater systems?
Their body fluids are always higher in osmotic concentration than the surrounding medium
What does hyper-osmotic mean in relation to invertebrates living in freshwater environments?
Must be capable of constantly expelling large volumes of incoming freshwater while retaining salts
What adaptation must an invertebrate living in a freshwater environment have?
Bacteria, 3 billion years ago
What were the first organisms on earth and when did they appear?
Multicellular, cells defined into tissues and organ systems
Linneaus, a botanist
Who is the father of classification?
Fungi, animalia, protista, plantae, archaebacteria, & eubacteria
What are the 6 kingdoms?
Eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea
What are the 3 domains?
Approximately how many species have been described?
4.7 billion years old
How old is the earth?
When in the geologic time scale did mammals appear?
What is thought to be the first invertebrates?
Beginning of the Phanerozoic eon and early cambrian; about 543 - 635 million years ago
When were the earliest fossils of multicellular organisms found?
1.9 billion years ago
About how long ago did eukaryotes evolve?
Ediacarians, found in Australia
What were the first metazoans and where were they found?
Cambrian, about 580 million years ago
When did radiation of the invertebrates occur?
1) Oxygen revolution: oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased and stabilized
2) hox genes
What caused the explosion of diversification seen after the cambrian explosion?
Cell number, embryology, body symmetry, developmental pattern, evolutionary relationship, habitat and lifestyle
What are some ways to classify organisms?
Diploblastic has 2 germ layers and lack a coelom
Triploblastic has 3 germ layers and has a coelom
What are 2 differences between diploblastic and triploblastic organisms?
What are the levels of classification, in order?
Any named group of organisms that is sufficiently distinct
What is a taxon?
How many phyla of invertebrates exist?
Distantly related animals may come to resemble each other
What is convergence?
Similar in structure and evolutionary origin, but not necessarily in function (Ex: a seals flipper and a human arm)
performing a similar function but having a different evolutionary origin (Ex: the wings of insects and birds)
1) New data recieved
2) Different data sources
3) The discovery of a new organism
4) New technologies
Why would phylogenetic relationship schemes change?
To generate discussion, find out about evolutionary patterns of groups, medical advancements, useful to know sister groups
Why is classification important?
Descent with modification
What is the simple definition of Darwinian evolution?
Evolutionary systematics (classical taxonomy)
Cladistics (phylogenic systematics)
What are the 2 main approaches to classification?
It decides which characters are likely to be important
How is homology important in classical taxonomy?
1) slow process
2) needs a lot of experience, logic, and intuition
3) lack of objectivity
What are some negative aspects of classical taxonomy?
Using well defined procedures and computer programs
How are phylogenies constructed?
Shared characteristics derived from a common ancestor
Takes into account molecular data
Why is Cladistics important?
You can not tell what the organism looks like based on genetics
What is a negative to cladistics?
1) Some molecules more likely to change than others
2) Some mutations occur with greater frequency than others
3) Mitochondrial DNA and 18S DNA evolve at different rates within same animal group
4) Sequence alignment
What are some problems with using molecular data?
How many protists are currently described?
What are animal-like protists called?
True or False: Protists never develop past the blastula stage
Anywhere there is moisture - marine, freshwater, and soil
Where are protists found?
Protists are unicellular. Where does their complexity come from?
How big are protists?
True or false: protists have a high surface area relative to body volume
Endoplasm (inner) and ectoplasm (outer)
What makes up the cytoplasm?
Contractile vacuoles, trichocycts, and toxicysts
What organelles do protists posses that are not found in multicellular organisms?
1) expel water form the cytoplasm
2) prevent swelling of the cell
3) maintain the physiological solute concentration
What are the main functions of the contractile vacuole?
Along the edges of the protist; form within membrane-bound vessicles in cytoplasm
Where are the trichocysts found?
long, thin filaments with a super fast discharge
What are trichocysts?
mechanical and chemical stimuli
What triggers the trichocysts?
Still unknown - protection? feeding?
What is the function of the trichocycts?
filaments which paralyze prey and start digestion, toxin is located at the tip of the filament
What are toxicysts?
What is the function of the toxicysts?
cilia, flagella, and pseudopodia
What 3 methods of locomotion have been observed in protists?
1) cylindrical with cilium rising from the basal body (kinetosome)
2) microtubules made of tubulin
What is the basic structure of cilia?
What allows for the movement on cilia?
movement of cilia, allows for locomotion, food collection, ridding of waste, and gas exchange
What is cilia bending and what is its function?
What is the fastest mode of protozoan locomotion?
Power stroke works against the environment and recovery is where the cilium bends to reduce resistance (think human swimming)
What is the power and recovery stroke?
1) similar in structure to cilia
2) 9 pairs of microtubules produced from basal bodies
3) move by sliding microtubules
What are the main characteristics of flagella?
1) Posses many mastigonemes (external hairlike projections
2) longer than cilia and fewer
How are flagella different from cilia?
What method of locomotion do amoebas use?
the organism flows into the advancing pseudopod
Cytoplasmic streaming in amoeboid motion:
Asexually and sexually (alternation of generations)
How do protozoans reproduce?
1) binary fission
2) multiple fission
4) replication of chromosomes and splitting of parent
What methods of asexual production do protozoans use?
The individuals of a protozoan colony are genetically, morphologically, and functionally identical
How to colonial protozoans bridge the gap between unicellular and multicellular?
It allows them to survice exposure to what would otherwise be intolerable environmental conditions of acidity, dryness, thermal stress, and food/oxygen deprivation
How does encystment benefit protozoans?
Do protozoans digest food internally or externally?
1) Food is ingested and surrounded into a phagosome
2) Moves in the cytoplasm as its digested
3) pH changes from very acidic to very basic
How does a protozoan digest food?
Digestion requires exposing food to a series of enzymes, each with a specific role and narrowly defined pH optimum
How is protozoan digestion similar to human digestion?
What phyla groups are in Kingdom Chromista?
What phyla groups are in Kingdom Protozoa?
Which classes are in phylum Alveolata?
Which classes are in phylum Rhizaria?
Naked and test Lobosea
Which classes are in phylum Amoebozoa?
Which classes are in phylum Excavata?
Which classes are in phylum Euglenozoa?
1) Flattened membrane bound vesicles (alveoli) located just under their plasma membranes
2) All are unicellular, but have diverse morphologies and lifestyles
3) Mitochondrial cristae is tubular
What are the main characteristics for phylum Alveolata?
Which class is the most advanced within phylum Alveolata?
1) Have 2 nuclei ( a diploid micronucleus and a polyploid macronucleus)
2) Use cilia to swim
Main characteristics of Ciliophora:
mouth opening, different species have a differently shaped cytosome which can be used for ID
Series of membranes covering the body
True or False: Ciliates have permanent excretory pore
1) all are marine or freshwater
2) about 1/2 are photosynthetic
3) each species has a distinct shape; in some the shape is maintained by cellulose plates
Class Dinozoa characteristics:
Emit light via an enzyme-catalyzed reaction; they make their own luciferin
2, which they use to swim in a spinning motion
How many flagella do dinoflagellates have?
Do dinoflagellates reproduce sexually or asexually?
Which class within Alveolata is responsible for harmful algal blooms (HABs)?
They are primary producers
How are photosynthetic dinoflagellates important in marine ecosystems?
1) fish kills
2) reduce O2 levels in the water
What are some of the effects of HABs?
1) ALL are parasitic
2) Move by amoeboid motion
3) Absorb nutrients directly from their hosts
What are some of the characteristics of Apicomplexans?
Have an intermediate and definitive host, and cells must be transferred from one host to the next
What does it mean that Apicomplexans have 2 distinct hosts?
Plasmodium (malaria) - sporacites infect the liver and then move to the red blood cells
mosquito is the vector and intermediate host
human is the definitive host
What is an example of an Apicomplexan with 2 hosts?
1) Lack cell walls and take in food by engulfing it
2) Movie via amoeboid motion; produce large, lobe-like pseudopodia
3) Live in freshwater and moist soils, none are marine
Class Amoebozoa characteristics:
Entramoeba hystolytica causes dysentery
Some amoebas are parasitic, what is an example of an amoebas that is parasitic to humans?
How do Amoebozoans reproduce?
Naked and test-bearing amoebas (phylum amoebozoa)
Forams and radiolarians (Phylum Alveolata)
- Phylum Amoebozoa
- Shapeless bodies with wide, blunt or thin pointy pseudopodia
- Surrounded by cell membrane only
- Hetertrophic through phagosytosis
The engulfing and ingestion of bacteria or other foreign bodies by phagocytes
What is phagocytosis?
- Test-bearing amoebas with a single-chambered test of protein or silica
- Pseudopodia moves through 1 opening in the test
- Common in soil, lakes, and streams
Part of the amoeba forms a stalk topped by a ball-like structure in which spores are formed. Spores are then dispersed to new habitats
How to plasmodial slime molds to food shortages?
They form a large, web-like structure that consists of a single "supercell" containing many diploid nuclei
What "form" do plasmodial slime molds take on?
1) They move my amoeboid motion or cytoplasmic streaming
2) They feed on decaying vegetation
3) Are important decomposers in forest ecosystems
What are some of the characteristics of plasmodial slime molds?
They are efficient decomposers
Why are plasmodial slime molds important in forest ecosystems?
1) single celled amoebae
2) lack cell walls
3) produce long, slender pseudopodia
4) some species produce tests
What are some of the characteristics of Rhizaria?
Benthic and planktonic marine habitats
Which habitats are foraminifera abundant in?
True or false: forams produce shells that have holes through which the pseudopodia emerge
Do forams have 1 or multiple nuclei?
Asexually by mitosis or
sexually by producing gametes through meiosis
How do forams reproduce?
The gametes are released in open water where they fuse to form new diploid individuals, similarly to coral spawning
How do forams release their gametes, and how is it similar to corals?
Made of organic material and hardened by calcium carbonate
What are foram shells made of?
Shell size and shape
How can foram species be distinguished from each other?
By engulfing bacteria, archaea, or organic debris with their pseudopodia
How do forams feed?
Yes, some have symbiotic algae that performs photosynthesis
Do forams have any symbiotic relationships?
The contribute to the microbial loop
What is one way in which forams are important in marine environments?
Do forams float or locomote actively?
1) amoeboid protozoans
2) produce intricate silica skeletons
3) central capsule divides the cell into inner and outer portion; endoplasm and ectoplasm
What are some characteristics of Radiolaria?
They exhibit rapid turnover of species, are found from the cambrian onwards
How are radiolarians an important diagnostic fossil?
Found as zooplankton throughout the ocean
Where in the oceans are radiolarians found?
The skeletal remains of radiolarians that cover large portions of the ocean bottom
What is siliceous/radiolarian ooze?
1) posses 1 - many flagella
2) mostly free-living and motile with pellicle
3) ancestors of all amoeboid species - supported by molecular data
What are some characteristics of flagellated protozoans?
phytoflagellated and zooflagellated
What are the 2 groups of flagellated protozoans?
What are flagellated protozoans called?
1) photosynthesis, contain chlorophyll (Ex: Euglena)
2) photosynthesis AND ingest organic compounds
What are the 2 different feeding methods used by phytoflagellated protozoans?
Do phytoflagellated protozoans have either a mouth or food vacuole?
In extreme conditions, ex. some euglenids if kept in dark for long periods
Can phytoflagellated protozoans feed on particulate matter?
A photosensitive organelles that helps the protozoan to maintain a position with sufficient light
Many phytoflagellated protozoans have a stigma. What is it and what is its function?
They are the most animal-like protozoans, and are free-living in freshwater, saltwater, and soil
What are zooflagellated protozoans and where do they live?
What group would choanoflagellates be classified under?
Most are parasitic or commensal plants, verts, and inverts
How do zooflagellated protozoans obtain energy?
1) most have a flagella
2) includes free-living, parasitic, and symbiotic species
What are some characteristics of super-phylum Excavata?
How do members of excavata reproduce?
Giardia intestinalis; a diplomonad, causes severe diarrhea and can be contracted from drinking water contaminated with feces
Give an example of a parasitic member of excavata:
Some members have reduced mitochondria that generate some energy anaerobically
How members of excavata produce energy?
Trichomonas vaginalis, Excavata
Which pathogen causes yeast infections in humans, and what group does it belong to?
A parasite that lives within another parasite
What is a hypermastigote?
1) They form symbiotic relationships
2) They are important primary producers
3) They are important decomposers
4) Form the basis of the food web
Why are protists important?
The movement of carbon atoms from CO2 molecules in the atmosphere to organisms in the soil or ocean and then back to the atmosphere
What is the global carbon cycle?
1) decreasing atmospheric CO2 conc.
2) increase the amount of carbon stored in aquatic and terrestrial environments (carbon sequestering)
How are researchers trying to reduce global climate change?
1) sedimentary rocks
How can protists sequester carbon?
At the bottom
Where do sponges fit in the phylogenetic tree?
They are the simplest multicellular organisms and are considered to be the basal group for all other multicelled animals
Why are sponges at the bottom of the phylogenetic tree?
Due to the presence of choanocytes, what are sponges though to have evolved from?
What is the porifera body plan?
Do sponges have tissues and organs?
the empty space inside of a sponge
What is the spongocoel?
found along the whole body; brings in water
moves nutrition around the body; breaks down food
line the inside of the body; capture food particles, keep water moving, release sperm & egg packets
By moving flagella
How does a sponge's choanocytes keep water moving?
Forms an 'epithelial' like covering; NOT tissue
support structure; often made of silica. Have different shapes based on species
a protein that helps give the sponge structure
gas exchange, food, waste removal, sperm exchange
What do sponges rely on water flow for?
To allow for food capture
Why must water slow down once it has entered the sponge?
What principle allows the water passing through a sponge to change speeds?
states that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases
What is Bernoulli's principle?
fragmentation, budding, gemmules(FW only)
How do sponges reproduce asexually?
1)egg and sperm production
2) fertilization internal
3) hermaphroditic (1 year egg, next year sperm)
How do sponges reproduce sexually?
swimming larvae releases through the oscula; once released can't eat & begins metamorphosis withing 24 hours
How is the porifera larvae released?
What are the 4 classes within phylum porifera?
morphology of the support structure (spicules)
What are the differences between porifera classes?
What are the 3 levels of sponge construction?
What is the most complex level of sponge construction?
What is the simplest level of sponge construction?
Are most sponges asconoid, syconoid, or leuconoid?
calcium carbonate spicules
all 3 types of sponge construction
some may have a hard 'exoskeleton'
Porifera: Class Calcarea characteristics:
yellow calcareous sponge
what is an example of members of class calcarea?
NEVER have CaCO3
almost all leuconoid construction
have spongin and/or silica
encompasses 80% of all sponges
Porifera: Class Demospongia characteristics:
Elephant ear sponge
What are some examples of members of class demospongia?
1) glass sponges
2) supported by 6-rayed spicules made of silica or chitin
3) syconoid or leuconoid
4) no pinacoderm layer
Porifera: Class Hexactinellida characteristics:
what is an example of members of class hexactinellida?
Which class of sponges has calcium carbonate?
which class of sponges is only leuconoid construction?
which class of sponge has a support made of 6-rayed spicules composed of silica or chitin?
recently split from demospongia
less than 100 species
most lack spicules
all epithelial cells (pinacocytes) bear cilia
Porifera: Class Homoscleromorpha characteristics:
1) chemical compounds used by the sponges or their symbiotic cyanobacteria
2) assist in keeping sessile organisms off of boat hulls and underwater surfaces
Why are sponges economically important?
1) a caribbean sponge is thought to be able to treat aids
2) compounds extracted from sponges can be used to make powerful antibiotics
Why are sponges medically important?
1) provide a home for organisms
2) assist in maintaining the water quality of the surrounding habitats
3) nutrient cycling
Why are sponges ecologically important?
1) amoeba looking
3) no defined shape
4) mobile, use flagella
5) 2 layers of epithelial cells (not tissue, but more organized)
What is the one and only species present in phylum placozoa?
marine aquaria and shallow marine habitats
Where is Trichoplax adhaerens found?
When was Trichoplax adhaerens discovered?
seems to be extracellular; no phagocytosis has been seen
How does Trichoplax adhaerens digest food?
embryos have developed but not survived
How does Trichoplax adhaerens reproduce?
a "water skeleton"
What is a hydrostatic skeleton?
1) cavity with a fluid that can transmit pressure changes
2) cavity be surrounded by a flexible outer membrane
3) volume of the fluid remains constant
4) animal must be able to form temporary attachments to substrate
5) presence of elastic covering or 2 sets of muscles that can contract against one another
what 5 things does an organism need in order to have a hydrostatic skeleton?
corals, jellyfish, anemones, and hydras
Which types of animals are included in phylum cnidaria?
1) presence of nematocysts
2) planula larval stage during development
3) radial symmetry
4) 2 layers of living tissue - no mesoderm
What are the defining characteristics of phylum cnidaria?
a gelatinous layer of tissue between the epidermis and the gastrodermis
What is the mesoglea?
polyp and medusa
What 2 form can cnidarias take on?
1) discharge results from a sudden change in osmotic conc. within the capsule fluid
2) osmotic pressure is high all the time, and discharges when capsule operculum is opened
What are 2 theories on the release of cnidae?
What is the function of cnidae?
One: must complete digestion and get rid of waste before can eat again
How many digestive opening to cnidarians have?
the digestive cavity is distorted during digestion
Why is movement difficult for cnidarians while they are digesting?
In the digestive cavity
When does gonadal development happen in cnidarians?
Yes, nerve excitation usually happens over the whole body
Do cnidarians have nerves?
no, but have a nerve net
Do cnidarians have a central nervous system?
1 slow moving and 1 fast moving; under epithelium layer and larger diameter
2 cnidarian nerve networks:
they are diploblastic
Why cant cnidarian muscles originate in the mesoderm?
ectodermal and endodermal cells that have long contractile bases; run longitudinally and circularly
What are cnidarian muscle layers made up of?
Scyphozoa: true jellies
Hydrozoa: hydras, man-of-wars, siphonophores
Anthozoa: corals, anemones (no medusa)
myxozoa: all parasitic
What are the 5 classes within phylum cnidaria?
moon jellies, fried egg jellyfish, lion's mane jellyfish
What are some examples of animals within class scyphozoa?
1) true jellies
2) swim by contractile muscles around the bell
What are the defining characteristics of class scyphozoa?
statocysts (for balance)
ocelli (eye spots)
sensory lappets (extensions of tissue around the bell; sometimes have an ocelli)
What sensory receptors do scyphozoans have?
planula - scyphistoma (polyp) - strobilation occurs - ephyra (baby medusa) swims away - adult
What is the scyphozoan lifestyle?
tropical and subtropical waters
Where do cubozoans live?
4 tentacles/groups of tentacles at each edge of the rhopalia
what distinguishes cubozoans from other jellyfish?
a single larvae buds off polyps, and the polyps form a medua
how to cubozoans reproduce?
Cubozoans have a well developed nervou system
How does the nervous system of cubomedusae compare to other members of cnidaria?
spore-forming parasites that infect fish and annelids
What are myxozoans?
1) nematocysts are only found in the epidermis
2) form colonies
3) a lot of symbiotic relationships
What are some defining characteristics of hydrozoa?
smaller, and differences in water in/output
How are hydrozoans different than scyphozoans?
fire coral, Portuguese man-of-war
what are some examples of hydrozoans?
free floating hydrozoan colonies with both the polyp and medusae present at the same time
Class hydrozoa - order siphonophora
no medusa stage
tissues partition the coeleneteron
ciliated groove in pharyngeal wall from mouth
What are the defining characteristics of class Anthozoa?
corals and anemones
What organisms are included in anthozoa?
gametes form polyps directly- planula- feeds on phytoplankton
How do anthozoans reproduce sexually?
What is the only class within cnidaria to have planula that feed on phytoplankton?
How do anthozoans reproduce asexually?
circular and longitudinal fibers
what tissues do anthozoans possess?
Are octocorals hermatypic or ahermatypic?
They have zooxanthellae (symbionts) living within their tissues which have specific temperature requirements. If the temperature is too hot/cold, it stresses the corals and they expel their zoox (bleaching)
Why are hermatypic corals restriced to tropical/subtropical waters?
fatty acids, lipids, amino acids (energy)
What do the zooxanthellae provide to the corals?
CO2 and nitrogenous wastes
What do the corals provide to the zooxanthellae?
reef-building corals; make a CaCO3 skeleton
What does 'hermatypic' refer to?
Non reef-building corals; soft corals
What does 'ahermatypic' refer to?
Are hexacorallia hermatypic or ahermatypic?
sea whips, sea fans, sea plumes
What are some examples of octocorals?
brain coral (Colpophyllia natans)
pillar coral (Dendrogyra cylindrus)
Acropora cervicornis (staghorn)
What are some examples of hexacorals?
1) major link in food web
2) provide diverse ecosystems
3) symbiotic relationships
4) storm protection (corals)
5) biomedical applications
Why are Cnidaria important?
extinct within 30 years
What is the predicted outcome for the corals of the Fl Keys?
disease, storms, overfishing, pollution, climate change, ocean acidification
What are some impacts on corals?
1)Ctenophores do not have nematocysts like cnidarians do
2) ctenophores have biradial symmetry
3) differences in feeding, balance, and waste removal
What is the main difference between cnidarians and ctenophores?
Plates of fused silica in rows with adhesive colloblasts; used for prey capture
What are ctenes and what are they used for?
similar to medusae:epidermis, gastrodermis, mesoglea
Describe the ctenophore body plan:
All species are carnivores
What do ctenophores eat?
How many rows of ctenes do ctenophores have?
Balancers; made of CaCO3 and sits on 4 tufts of cilia
What is the stratolith in ctenophores?
a straight filament with a sticky tip and spiral contractile filament; used for feeding
What are colloblasts, and what do ctenophores use them for?
Prey is stuck in sticky tentacles and then retracted in the mouth
How to ctenophores feed?
They have colloblasts along their bodies
How do some Nuda ctenophores use their bodies for feeding?
4 digestive canals;
2 end blindly and 2 open to the outside
Describe the ctenophore digestive system:
Ctenophores excrete waste out through anal pores while cnidarians only have 1 digestive opening
How to ctenophores excrete waste and how does this differ from cnidarians?
Gametes are discharged through the mouth and eggs are fertilized externally
How to ctenophores reproduce?
Most are hermaphroditic, with a single individual typically having both male and female gonads
Are ctenophores hermaphroditic or are there separate sexes?
How gastrulation develops
How does development differ between ctenophores and cnidarians
1) embryos develop into a cydippid
2) spherical, almost adult-like
3) a few changes still occur before they reach their adult form
Describe the ctenophore lifestyle:
startling predators, finding/luring prey, communication
Why do ctenophores use bioluminesence?
a chemical reaction in which the excess energy is given off as light instead of heat
How do ctenophores produce bioluminescence?
the open ocean
Where do the majority of ctenophores live?
1) tentaculata (have tentacles)
2) Nuda (no tentacles)
What are the 2 classes of ctenophora?
Mnemiopsis leidyl (sea walnut)
eats small fish/larvae of big fish
decimates fish stocks in the black sea, baltic sea, and caspian sea
Give an example of an invasive species of ctenophore
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