112 terms

Free Online NCLEX Review. LVN/LPN: Pulmonary System Disorders #2: ARDS, ARF, Atelectasis, Bronchioectatis, Cor Pulmonale, Legionnaires' disease, lung cancer, Pleurisy ('Pleuritis'), Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia, resp acidosis/alk., Sarcoidosis, TB, COPD

A listing of Pulmonary/Respiratory Disorders in Adults. Manifestations, notes, category, signs & symptoms, terms. Useful for ppl pursuing Nursing. ARDS, ARF, Atelectasis, Bronchioectasis, Cor Pulmonale, Lung Cancer types, Pneumonia, Pneumothorax, Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia, Emphysema.
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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
A disorder in which fluid builds up in the lungs causing them to stiffen.
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Ppl who recover from this may have zero or little lung damage.
Acute Respirator Distress Syndrome
A ground glass appearance in the lungs. There is bilateral consolidation.
Acute Respiratory Failure
This is an all around failure of the respiratory system.
Acute Respiratory Failure
When the Resp. System can't supply the body w/the O2 it needs or it can't remove CO2.
Acute Respiratory Failure
There are two types of this: 1) Ventilatory Failure. 2) Oxygenation Failure.
Acute Respiratory Failure
This occurs when the PaO2 is >50 mm Hg, PaCO2 is 50 mm Hg or more, and pH is 7.25 or less.
Acute Respiratory Failure. Type 1) Ventilatory Failure
This is due to alveolar hypoventilation.
Acute Respiratory Failure. Type 2) Oxygenation Failure
This occurs when blood flows to lung tissue that's experiencing reduced ventilation, or ventilation to lung tissue that's experiencing reduced blood flow, or shunting from the R side of the heart to the L side of the heart.
Asphyxia
The term for interference w/respiration leading to cardiopulmonary arrest & death.
Atelectasis
"Incomplete expansion of the lung/alveoli clusters ("lobules") or lung segments. This may in turn cause a partial or a complete collapse of the lung."
Atelectasis
Having post-op Pts cough, deep breathe, hold a pillow over their chest while they cough/deep breathe, get 'em walking, use an incentive spirometer prevents this from occuring.
Atelectasis
Nurses give pain meds to treat pain because pain prevent Pts from deep breathing, and lack of deep breathing leads to this.
Bronchioectasis
"Chronic abnormal dilation of the bronchi."
Bronchioectasis
Destruction of the walls of the bronchi.
Bronchioectasis
3 types: 1) Cylindrical/fusiform. 2) Varicose. 3) Saccular/cystic.
Bronchioectasis
This resp. condition is usually found in the lower lobes.
Bronchioectatis
When Pt coughs up several cupfuls of foul smelling gunk they are suffering from this.
Bronchioectasis
This condition is D/T: Gas inhalation, gastric juices in lungs, obstruction, or recurrent lung infections that are poorly treated.
Bronchiectasis
This ailment is treated with early morning & bedtime chest percussion.
Cor Pulmonale
This disease of the lungs causes the enlargement of the R ventricle of the heart.
Cor Pulmonale
25% of COPD Pts get this condition.
Cor Pulmonale
This disease requires oxygen therapy of 24%-40%.
Cor Pulmonale
This disease is d/t an increased PVR which leads to an increase in R ventricular pressure.
Cor Pulmonale
Limit fluid intake to to 1-2L/day. Low Na diet to trt this disease/condition.
Legionnaires' Disease
Gram negative bacteria causes bronchopneumonia & inflammation. Occurs in late Summer & early Fall. Mild to 15% mortality Fluorescent. Dopamine.
Lung Cancer
Unregulated cell growth & division L/T a tumor.
This type of lung cancer is slow growing.
Squamous cell/epidermoid.
This type of lung cancer is slow growing:
Squamous cell/epidermoid.
This is one type of lung cancer.
Adenocarcinoma.
This type of lung cancer is very fast growing:
Large Cell.
This type of lung cancer is very fast growing.
Small Cell.
This type of med is used to treat lung cancer:
Anti-neoplastics.
Pleural Effusion.
An excess of fluid in the pleural space.
Pleural Effusion. Intervention:
Thoracentesis.
Pleural Effusion. Test/lab:
Lactate dehydrogenase levels.
Pleural Effusion. A complication:
Empyema (pus, blood, chyle, and necrotic tissue in the pleural space).
Empyema
Pus, blood, chyle, and necrotic tissue in the pleural space.
Pleurisy
Also called 'Pleuritis'.
Pleuritis
Also known as 'Pleurisy'
Pleurisy/Pleuritis
Inflammation of the membranes which envelop the lungs/line the inside of the thoracic cage (the visceral and parietal pleurae).
Pleurisy/Pleuritis.
S/S: Pleural friction rub, sharp stabbing pain, bed rest. Thoracentesis.
Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia
Normal flora found in ppl. In immunosuppressed Pts it goes gangbusters.
Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia
90% of HIV Pts get it. It kills them.
Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Tests:
Fiber optic bronch. Xray.
Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. S/S, manifestations:
Fluffy infiltrates, nodular lesions, spontaneous pneumothorax.
Pneumocystis carinii
Is now called 'Pneumocystis jirovecii".
Pneumonia
Inflammation of the alveolar spaces. Increases in alveolar fluid.
Pneumothorax
Collapse of the lung from a loss of negative intrapleural pressure d/t a hole poking thru & air getting in.
Pneumothorax
S/S: Unilateral diminshed breath sounds, sharp pain
Pneumothorax. Tests
Xray of the chest shows a mediastinal shift.
Pneumothorax.
Intervention: Chest tube to a water seal drainage. Or, a needle thoracotomy.
Pneumothorax.
There are 4 types of these.
Pneumothorax, Spontaneous.
This is due to a bleb rupture.
Pneumothorax, "open".
There is hole from the outside of the body which goes to the inside of the body, into the intrapleural space.
Pneumothorax, "closed".
There is a hole which goes from the lung to the intrapleural space.
Pneumothorax, "Tension".
A buildup of air in the pleural space.
Pneumothorax, "Traumatic".
A result of blunt chest trauma.
Pneumothorax, "Hemothorax".
Blood accumulates in the pleural space d/t: 1) A rib lacerating lung tissue. 2) A rib lacerating an artery. 3) A rupture of a pulmonary blood vessel.
Pulmonary Embolism
An undissolved substance obstructs the flow of blood: Fat, air, thrombus, clot.
Pulmonary Embolism. Can be caused by this:
A fracture of a long, flat bone.
Pulmonary Embolism. Can be caused by this:
Coagulation issues.
Pulmonary Embolism. Can be caused by this:
Contraceptives.
Pulmonary Embolism. S/S:
Sudden onset of dyspnea, tachypnea, crackles. Elevated temp if thrombophlebitis caused the clot.
Pulmonary Embolism. Tests:
Xrays show dilated pulmonary arteries & the diaphragm elevated on the effected side.
Pulmonary Embolism. Interventions:
Vena cava filter insertion, anti-coagulants, morphine, diuretics, fibrinolytics. Stockings.
Pulmonary Embolism. Etiology:
A clot starts in the venous system, travels to the R side of the heart, into the pulmonary artery, and obstructs small vessels & causes pulm. htn. & in infarction.
Pulmonary Embolism. Simple test to prevent a PE:
Check Patient for a Homan's SIgn (pn in calf d/t a clot).
Respiratory Acidosis
This happens when there is too much CO2 in the blood.
Respiratory Acidosis
D/T reduced alveolar ventilation (the lungs are unable to remove the CO2 and the kidneys can't keep up either.).
Respiratory Acidosis
This can occur from an airway disease, suppressed breathing, obstruction (ie: Obesity, COPD, etc.), illegal drugs.
Respiratory Acidosis
pH is below normal. CO2 is higher than 45 mm Hg.
Respiratory Acidosis.
Interventions: CPAP, bronchodilators, intubation, dialysis (to remove the illegal drugs that are causing the reduced ventilation), coughing, deep breathing, intubation.
Respiratory Alkalosis
Not enough CO2 in the blood.
Respiratory Alkalosis
Elimination of CO2 by the lungs exceeds production of CO2 at the cellular level.
Respiratory Alkalosis.
S/S: Spasms of the wrists & feet ("carpopedal spasms").
Respiratory Alkalosis. Acute. S/S:
Deep, rapid breathing is the cardinal sign (+40 resp./min.) w/dizziness. PACO2 is less than 35 mm Hg. Increased pH. Bicarb is normal.
Respiratory Alkalosis. Chronic. S/S:
pH is normal. Bicarb is below normal.
Respiratory Alkalosis. Interventions:
Breathe into a paper bag. This causes CO2 to increase.
Respiratory Alkalosis. There are two types of this:
1) Acute. 2) Chronic.
Respiratory Alkalosis. Etiology:
This is d/t: Anxiety, asthma. Lots of resps blow off CO2 faster than the body can make CO2. A decrease in CO2 causes the blood to be less acidic and more alkalinic, thus the 'alkalosis' is caused by respirations.
Respiratory Alkalosis. Acute. S/S:
Prickling sensations around the mouth or extremeties ("circumoral"/"peripheral" paresthesia). Twitching leading to tetany.
Sarcoidosis
Nodules of inflamed tissue. Multisystemic. Effects 20-40 y.o. Resolves in 2 yrs.
Sarcoidosis. Etiology:
D/t: Exposure to zirconium, beryllium. Genetics, senstivity to bacteria, fungi, pine pollen.
Sarcoidosis: S/S, manifestations:
Substernal pain, arthralgia of wrists, ankles, elbows, erythema nodosum (sub q skin noduls w/eruptions), uveitis/glaucoma, large spleen, hepatitis, nerve palsies, meningitis. Blindness.
Sarcoidosis. Tests:
High CA in urine. Positive Kveim-Silzbach Test.
Sarcoidosis. Interventions:
Low CA diet, corticosteroids, cytotoxics, high calorie nutritious diet, no exposure to sunlight for Pts w/hyper CA.
Severe Acute Resp. Syndrome/'SARS'.
Asia. 2003. Corona virus. It is atypical pneumonia.
Tuberculosis.
Bacteria invade the alveoli then spread via the lymph system & into the circulatory system.
Tuberculosis
In this disease, 3-6 wks after invasion, cell mediated immunity contains then arrests the disease.
Tuberculosis
In this disease, when the infection reactivates, necrotic tissue turns cheesy,undergoes fibrosis, or form cavities lined w/multiplying tubercule which spreads thru the lungs & into the tracheobronchial tree.
Tuberculosis
This disease is due to acid fast bacilli.
Tuberculosis. Tests:
In this disease, an x-ray of the chest shows active or calcified lesions.
Tuberculosis. S/S:
Night sweats & fever.
Tuberculosis. Interventions:
Negative pressure room.
Tuberculosis. Precautions:
Staff must wear a respirator w/high efficiency particulate air filter.
Tuberculosis. Meds:
Finish the entire course of meds (6-18 months!).
Guillian-Barre Syndrome
This disease paralyzes the resp. muscles.
This is one type of COPD.
Asthma.
This is one type of COPD.
Chronic Bronchitis.
This is one type of COPD.
Emphysema
Asthma
This is one of three types of COPD. Bronchial lining overreact, causing episodic spasms and inflammation and severe restriction of the airways.
Asthma. Interventions:
Drink 3L of fluid/day. Perform pursed lipped breathing.
Ashma: S/S:
Expirational wheezes.
Chronic Bronchitis
This is one of three types of COPD. It develops from irritants & infections.
Chronic Bronchitis. Manifestations:
Increases mucous production, impairs airway clearance, causes irreversible narrowing of the small airways. CO2 is retained.
Chronic Bronchitis. S/S:
Finger clubbing, hyperinflation, tachycardia, R sided heart failure w/JVD.
Chronic Bronchitis. Interventions:
Encourage >3L of fluid intake/day, pursed lip breathing, incentive spirometer. Use only low flow oxygen as Pts are hypercapnic & have a hypoxic resp. drive. Intubation may become necessary.
Emphysema
This is one of 3 types of COPD. "Pink Puffer". Recurrent pulmonary inflammation damages then destroys alveolar walls L/T large spaces when they collapse.
Empyhsema. Etiology:
Deficiency in alpha 1-antitrypsin, smoking.
Emphysema. Interventions:
Fluid: 3L/day, steroids, Vit C, diet: High protein/calories, Vit C., low flow O2, intubation. alpha-1 antitrypsin therapy.
Emphysema
This person is called a "Pink Puffer".