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Exam 1 study guide for health alt.
Terms in this set (91)
Sickle cell anemia
a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body.
Narcotic, Chemotherapy, Vitamin, and Blood transfusion
Caused by a lack of intrinsic factor from the gastric parietal cells
-Required for vitamin B12 absorption
-Results in vitamin B12 deficiency
-Parenteral or high oral doses of vitamin B12
Folate deficiency anemia
Absorption of folate occurs in the upper small intestine
-daily oral administration of folate
Iron deficiency anemia
Nutritional iron deficiency or blood loss
Overproduction of red blood cells
Abnormality of stem cells in the bone marrow
Increase in erythropoietin as a normal response to an inappropriate response to erythropoietin-secreting tumors
Abnormal, uncontrolled proliferation of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
The bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells.
This can be caused by a host of conditions, including hepatitis, Epstein-Barr, or HIV -- to the side effect of a drug, to chemotherapy medications, to pregnancy
Medications, blood transfusions, and even a bone marrow transplant
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
an overactive immune system destroys the body's own red blood cells
Medicines that suppress the immune system, such as prednisone
Presence of undifferentiated or immature cells, usually blast cells
Predominant cell is mature but does not function normally
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Too many blood cells made in bone marrow
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Too many immature lymphocytes
Where is blood made and what promotes its production and what organs are related to all this?
Blood is produced in the bone marrow, Erythropoietin causes an increase in red cell production and bone marrow
What is lymphadenopathy and why does it occur.
Enlargement of lymph nodes
infections, leukemias, diseases of immune system
What are phagocytes and what do they do, what type of cells are normally the most prevalent that perform this action
Phagocytes may be a free-living one-celled organisms like a white blood cell and it engulf and "eat" other foreign cells like dead cells.
Macrophages and neutrophils
What are the normal lab values in a CBC and how prevalent are each of the cell types measured
White blood cell:
normal range is 4,500-10,000 cells per microliter
normal range for men is 5-6 million cells/mcL; for women it's 4-5 million cells/mcL.
The normal range is 140,000-450,000 cells/mcL
What is hypokalemia and what causes it
Low potassium and common cause is excessive potassium loss in urine due to prescription medications that increase urination such as water pills or diuretics
What does sodium have to do with water levels in the body?
Sodium is an electrolyte, and it helps regulate the amount of water that's in and around your cells
Extracellular fluid (ECF)
surrounds all cells in the body
Two major of ECF:
(IntraF):Made up of blood plasma and lymph
(InterF):Fluid in between the cells
One minor of ECF:
Made up of a small amount of spinal, peritoneal, synovial, and pleural fluid
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
Fluid located inside all the cells in the body and is the largest compartment
Movement of water down a concentration gradient
-Membrane must be more permeable to water than solutes
What makes someone more susceptible to dehydration?
Vomiting, diarrhea, Strenuous exercise, hot or cold weather and illness
What is coping and are all coping mechanisms good
-Strategies beneficial when problem focused and when social support is sought
-Maladaptive coping may contribute to adverse health effects
What does epinephrine do to the body and when is it released?
A.K.A adrenaline which increase heart rate, muscle strength, blood pressure, and sugar metabolism.
Strong emotions such as fear or anger cause epinephrine to be released into the bloodstream
1st stage of stress: Alarm
-Stressor triggers the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
-Activates sympathetic nervous system
-Arousal of body defenses
2nd stage of stress: Resistance/adaptation stage
-Begins with the actions of adrenal hormones
-Mobilization contributes to fight or flight
3rd stage of stress: Exhaustion
-Occurs only if stress continues and adaptation is not successful
-Leads to stress-related disorders
Found in normal microbiome of skin, GI tract, vagina of many individuals
Systemic lupus erythematosus(Lupus)
-Deposition of circulating immune complexes containing antibody against host DNA
More common in females
-Causes: environment such as x-rays, medications, viruses, stress, trauma and sex/hormones
Most rapid and severe immediate hypersensitivity reaction
-Occurs within minutes of reexposure to antigen
Systemic or cutaneous
-Altered immunologic response to an antigen that results in disease or damage to the host
-Occurs when the immune system over-reacts to a drug or other substance
Primary lymphoid tissue
-where lymphocytes are formed and mature. They provide an environment for stem cells to divide and mature into B- and T- cells
-organs: Athe red bone marrow and the thymus gland
Secondary lymphoid tissues
largest lymphoid organ: spleen and lymph nodes
- arranged as a series of filters monitoring the contents of the extracellular fluids
Crosses placenta and creates passive immunity for neonate and Activates complement, antibacterial
forms natural antibodies
Bathes mucous membranes (GI tract, respiratory, and genitourinary) and protects them from microorganisms and toxins
Links to allergens and causes release of histamine and other chemicals resulting in inflammation
activates B cells
How does the body fight infection?
They release lymphocytes, a certain type of white blood cell that fights infection
make specific antibodies to fight infectious microorganisms
kill infectious microorganisms by killing the body cells that are affected
What are the different ways that injuries heal
Bone grows back, old skin sheds, intestines regenerate their linings and the liver regenerates
Who is at greater risk for getting infection
Cancer, diabetes, HIV infection, alcohol use and not having a spleen
Limit and control the inflammatory process
-Prevent and limit infection and further damage
-Initiate adaptive immune response
What can happen to the body when we take antibiotics, what is the cause of some of these events?
Stomach ache, nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, photosensitivity, and fever
Penicillin, tetracycline, minocycline
Active immunity(natural )
-exposing the body to an antigen to generate an adaptive immune response.
-the response takes days/weeks to develop but may be long lasting—even lifelong
- providing IgG antibodies to protect against infection;
-it gives immediate, but short-lived protection—several weeks to 3 or 4 months at most
acquired passive immunity
-process of obtaining serum from immune individuals then injecting it to protect a susceptible person
natural passive immunity
transfer of maternal tetanus antibody (mainly IgG) across the placenta
defenses against infection that can be activated immediately once a pathogen attacks
includes physical barriers, defense mechanisms and general immune responses
What is apaptosis and when does it occur.
programmed cell death
- occurs when cells are no longer needed OR if the cell is damaged / stressed
consist of B cells and T cells
help blood to clot
Red blood cells
White blood cells
part of the immune response
-Reduced amount of oxygen in the air
-Loss of hemoglobin or decreased efficacy of hemoglobin
-Decreased production of red blood cells
-Diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
-Poisoning of the oxidative enzymes (cytochromes) within the cells
can affect any organ, but is most common in the skeletal muscle, the heart, and secondary sex organs.
-It can be either physiologic, occurring with early development, or pathologic, occurring as a result of decreases in workload, pressure, use, , blood supply, nutrition, hormonal stimulation, and nervous system stimulation.
-decrease in cellular size
increase in the size of cells in response to mechanical stimuli and consequently increases the size of the affected organ.
genes at a given locus
outward appearance of the genetics of an organism
have an extra X
-Mentally challenged, low nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, protruding tongue, low-set ears, poor muscle tone
-Risk increases with maternal age above 35
have only one x and its a bleeding disorder
sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis
recessive mutation from both parents
What is neurofibromatosis and what causes it
genetic disorder that causes tumors to form on nerve tissue
genetic defects (mutations) that either are passed on by a parent, NF gene located either on chromosome 17 or 22
Fragile X syndrome
Associated with intellectual disability
-Higher incidence in males because they have only one X chromosome
Females with only one X chromosome
short and underdeveloped breasts
female w/ 3 X's and it effects their learning ability
-both parents of affected individuals are heterozygous carriers
-Recurrence risk for offspring is 25%
-a defect (mutation) in a gene changes a protein that regulates the movement of salt in and out of cells
-Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices.
What are electrolytes and how are they used in the body?
Cation is a positive charge and these migrate toward the negative pole,, if an electrical current is passed through the electrolyte solution. Anion is a negative charge and they migrate toward the positive pole, when in the presence of electrical current.
-balance of the electrolytes in our bodies is essential for normal function of our cells and our organs
-Measured in milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L) or milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl)
Movement of solutes from area of greater concentration to area of lesser concentration
What does the cell use for energy
ATP(molecule that carries energy that cells can use)
How do cells communicate with each other
Signals molecules to activate protein kinases
Instructs cells to grow and reproduce, die, or differentiate
how Oxygen is used
-Cells will absorb the oxygen, then transform those nutrients into energy, which is known as ATP
it produces movement. Muscle cells, for example, generate forces that produce motion.
an electrical potential passes along the surface of the cell to reach its other parts, thus causing conduction as a response to a stimulus that is manifested by a wave of excitation. This is the chief function of nerve cells.
each cell can take in and use nutrients and other substances from their surroundings.
certain cells are capable of synthesizing new substances from substances they absorb. They can then secrete these substances that will serve a need elsewhere. Mucous gland cells are an example.
just like all cells take in nutrients, all cells rid themselves of waste products, as well, by breaking down the nutrients.
cellular respiration, or oxidation, happens in the mitochondria (organelles). Cells will absorb the oxygen, then transform those nutrients into energy, which is known as ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
cells enlarge and reproduce themselves to maintain tissue growth. Even if there is no growth, tissue maintenance requires that new cells be produced to replace cells that are normally lost through cellular death.
in order for cells to survive as a society of cells, they must communicate.
X linked diseases
occur in mainly males because females have another X
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Affected offspring usually produced by union of normal parent with affected heterozygous parent
-On average half of offspring will be normal, half will be heterozygous and express disease
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