38 terms

Psych chp 14/15

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Personality
The patterns of feelings, motives, and behavior that set people apart from one another.
Trait
An aspect of personality that is considered to be reasonably stable.
gordon Allport
The psychologist who suggested that traits can be inherited and are fixed in the nervous system.
Agreeableness
The tendency to go along with what other people want.
Hans Eysenck
The psychologist who proposed two personality dimensions: introversion-extroversion and stability-instability.
Sigmund Freud
The psychologist who proposed the "inner conflict" approach to personality theory.
id
According to freud, the structure of the mind that demands instant gratification.
Superego
According to Freud, the structure of the mind that demands morality.
Repression
Defense mechanism that removes anxiety-causing ideas from conscious awareness by pushing them into the unconscious.
Denial
Defense mechanism in which a person refuses to accept the reality of anything that is bad.
Oral
According to Freud, the first stage of psychological development.
Carl Jung
The psychiatrist who proposed the idea of the collective unconscious.
Collective unconscious
A store of human concepts shared by all people across all cultures.
Archetypes
Ideas and images of the accumulated expierience of all human beings.
Alfred Adler
The psychologist who believed that people are basically motivated by a need to overcome feelings of inferiority.
Erik Erikson
The psychologist who proposed an eight stage theory of psychosocial development.
behaviorism
The personality theory that teaches that environmental forces shape peoples behavior.
Socialization
The use of reinforcers to influence people to perform socially desirable behaviors.
Social learning
The personality theory that focuses on learning by observation and on the role of cognitive processes that produce individual differences.
humanistic
The approach to personality development that maintains that people are free to make concious choices and are responsible for their choices.
Abraham Maslow
The psychologist that believed that people wish to reach their full potential but must follow individual paths to do so.
Self-concept
A view of oneself as an individual.
Carl Rogers
The psychologist who developed the self theory, which asserts that people have a need for consistency between their self-concepts and their expieriences.
Self esteem
The belief in oneself, or self-respect
Acculturation
The process of adapting to a new or different culture.
Psychological tests
____________ asses abilities, feelings, attitudes, and behaviors.
behavior-rating scales
Using ______________, observers measure behavior by checking off each occurence of a specific behavior within a certain amount of time.
Standardized test
A ____________ is one that is administered and scored the same way every time it is used.
Stanford binet,Wexler
The two most widely used intelligence tests are the ____________ and the ____________.
Test-retest reliability
When a person recieves similar scores on the same test taken on different occasions, that test is said to have____________.
Validity scales
To avoid the effects of distortion on a test, psychological tests have _____________ built into them.
Norms
The established standards of performanceon a test are called the____________.
Achievement tests
Tests that measure peoples skills and the knowledge they have in specific academic areas are ______________.
Aptitude test
A _______________ is used to determine whether a person is likely to do well in a given field of work or study.
Vocational intrest iventories
Tests that determine whether people have intrests similair to those people in various lines of work are called__________.
Forced-choice format
A test with a _____________ is one in which the test taker must choose one of the answers, even if none of them seem to fit his or her intrests precisely.
Strong Cambell intrest survey
The ___________ is a test that compares the test takers intrests with the intrests if people who enjoy and are successful in various kinds of work.
Personality tests
Psychologists use ________________________ to help diagnose psychological problems or disorders.