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Chapter 19: The Incorporation of America

Revolutions in Technology in Transportation
-Centennial Exposition of 1876: celebrated the inventions that were going to come
-telephone invented by Alexander Graham Bell
-1876: first industrial research lab opened in New Jersey
-1882: first electricity company in New York City
-henry ford was experiencing with gas
-1903: wrights flew the first plane
-1869: transcontinental railroad:led to economic growth
1) 1870 2) New York 3) Interaction
Thomas Edison
-his most important invention was the lightbulb
- Edison Electric Light Company started service in NYC financial district, electricity in urban and industry, replaced steam,
-moved his laboratory to West Orange, NJ
-he invented the battery, the phonograph, and the kinetoscope
1) 1870 2) New Jersey 3) Interaction
Mechanization (651)
-when machines and workers continuously produced products making more product at a faster place
-it sped up the provess, becoming standard
-people had simplier jobs so they werent paid as much, not good working conditions
1)1880 2) America 3) Economy
Horizontal Combination
-horizontal combination: gaining control over the market for one product
-example is the Standard Oil company, only sold oil
-1890: Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust act to restore competition
-1910: big businesses: Goodyear, General Electric, Westinghouse, and Nabisco
1) 1900 2) America 3) Interaction
Vertical Integration
-Merchants and landowners used vertical integration to control cotton textile production, which supplied the capital for industrial expansion and technological improvements
1) 1870 2) America 3) Culture
Gospel of Wealth
-pursuit of wealth mixed with oldtime religious zeal
believed in doing what you could to get power, even if it was bad
-gould tricked stockholders and eventually took control of the Express company
-carnegie won "fair and squrare", gained his power fair and square.
undercut in steel, used better technologies than his competitiors,
-underpaid and was a cruel boss, but gave away a lot of his money to the community
-led to the development of scientivic theories of evolution from Darwin
1) 1870 2) America 3) Culture
John D. Rockefeller
-an American industrialist and philanthropist that ruled the petroleum industry
-In 1870 he founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s
- he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
1) 1870 2) East 3) Economy
Andrew Carnegie
-Carnegie built the Carnegie Steel company in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania
-built the Keystone bridge
-considered one of the Captains of Industry
-1901, sold his company to J.P. Morgan for $492 million
1) 1900 2) Pennsylvania 3) Economy
Charles Darwin The Origin of Species
-scientific theory that was made by Charles Darwin describing concepts such as survival of the fittest, evolution, and more
1) 1860 2) America 3) Culture
Social Darwinism
-when the ideas of evolution and "survival of the fittest" were used to justify white supremacy and imperialism, claiming that white people were more stronger and better then minorities like Irish immigrants and African Americans
1) 1880 2) America 3)Culture
Chinese Exclusion Act
-wage system was racist to Chinese
-San Francisco excluded Chinese from opening laundries and their children from schools
-In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act that prohibited Chinese immigration
1) 1880 2) San Francisco 3) Politics
Knights of Labor
-kinghts of labor, garment cutters in 1869
-wanted to stop child labor, wanted to increase income tax
no contract labor
-monetary reform
-land for the homesteads
-led campaign for a short workday
-excluded Chinese workers, even though women played a part as well
1) 1860 2) America 3) Economy
American Federation of Labor
-american federation of labor accepted the wage system
-believed women should stay home and do domestic work
-kept spome of the knights of labor policies
-worked with Chicago's Central labor Policy
-started to have funds to support the monitoring of work conditions
1) 1850 2) America 3) Economy
The New South
-The new mills in the four cottonmanufacturing states—North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama—had production far surpassing New England mills
-Northern investors shifted investments South, owning much of the region's wealth, but returning only a small portion through employment and services
-Beyond steel and textile, Southern industry remained extractive and rural
-Turpentine and lumber, and sawmills and distilleries with them, moved into the dwindling pine forests
-Fruit canning and sugar refining boom. Southern industry remained a raw materials industry, perpetuating the NorthSouth economic imbalance
1) 1850 2) America 3) Economy
The Urban Landscape (665)
-Cities experienced a building boom, creating many beautiful and useful structures.
-Cities worked to improve the conditions of housing, who worked in dingy factories and lived in cramped tenements
-American streets followed a grid pattern, with builders getting rid of anything in the way, though city officials lacked a master plan
-Factories occupied the best sites near waterways, where goods could be transported and chemicals dumped
-Tenements were built to maximize space, producing high population densities
-However, engineers also planned richer communities with mansions and townhouses, with public architecture such as a public library, fine arts and science museums, and an orchestra
-Civic architecture used fireproof materials, expanded foundations, and internal metal construction to build offices and factories many stories high
1) 1850 2) America 3) Social
-4 to 6 story houses that were popular in New York
-built in small lots without regard to providing ventilation or light
-a majrity of the people worked in dingy factoris and lived in the tenements
-Tenements were built to maximize space, producing high population densities
1) 1850 2) New york 3) Social
The Gilded Age
-After the Civil War, the Gilded Age (Mark Twain) favored the growth of a class united by the pursuit of leisure and money, forming national networks, the Social Register indentifying the 500 families that controlled the nation's wealth
-The rich had created a style of conspicuous consumption (Thorstein Veblen), designing ostentatious households and displaying their wealth
1) 1850 2) America 3) Culture
Conspicuous Consumption
-After the Civil War, the Gilded Age (Mark Twain) favored the growth of a class united by the pursuit of leisure and money, forming national networks, the Social Register indentifying the 500 families that controlled the nation's wealth
-The rich had created a style of conspicuous consumption (Thorstein Veblen), designing ostentatious households and displaying their wealth
-In New York, families hosted dinner parties for their dogs or pet monkey, "Diamond Jim" Brady enjoying aftertheatre "snacks" at lobster palaces
-The "cottages" of Newport were more magnificent than the English houses they mimicked, where the rich played new amateur sports or went yachting
1) 1850 2) America 3) Economy
The Middle Class (668)
-A new middle class formed included both professionals and a number of salaried employees, mostly specialized workers
-Middle class families lived in suburban retreats, away from the city, allowing workers to separate work and home
-Middle class women devoted their time to taking care of the home, employing one or two servants as well as the new appliances such as the gas cooking stove
-Magazines and cookbooks made food more complex. Though the sweeper was more efficient than the broom, new carpets demanded more care. Instead of reducing time, housework expanded to fill the leisure time
-Middleclass women spent most of their time consuming, buying machinemade goods, packaged foods, manufactured clothing, and personal luxuries. Department stores and shopping became a pastime for women
1) 1850 2) America 3) Social
Education (672)
-Public education grew with business, providing industry with the educated populace it needed to keep it and government going
-Public high schools saw increasing attendance, but still only served only 4% of children between fourteen and seventeen were enrolled in school, most schoolgirls planning to become teachers or office workers
-They mostly served middleclass families, the immediate demands of working class families forcing children into the workforce
Agricultural colleges and developed alongside liberal arts colleges, but only served 3% of the collegeage population
-Professional training grew, offering advanced degrees in the arts and sciences
-After the Civil War, women's colleges opened and coeducation grew at an expanding rate, 47% of colleges admitting women by 1890
-The Women's Educational and Industrial Union offered classes to Boston's wageearning women
1) 1880 2) America 3)Culture
-Sports outdistanced all other amusements in appealing to fans, especially baseball. Baseball, a sport of gentlemen and Union soldiers, became a national pastime first played by English children in a game known as "rounders."
-The National League raised prices, prohibited alcohol, and observed Sunday blue lawS
-The American Association refused to do such frivolous things
-Baseball soon became incorporated, with merchants and then companies sponsoring team
-The White Stockings, organized as a jointstock company, recruited star pitcher Alber Spalding from the Red Stockings, who eventually became a manager and president of the teaml
1) 1880 2) America 3)Culture