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Terms in this set (84)

- Pathophysiology: Theories link the cause to single and combinations of factors that include; Genetics, autoimmune, viral, and environmental.

- Type 1: is normally the end result of a long standing process, like the progressive destruction of pancreatic B cells by autoantibodies.

- Type 2: is the most prevalent form of diabetes. It has a genetic basis with greater rates in African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. (Native americans and Alaskans have highest rates in world). It occurs when pancreas still produces some insulin, but amount is either insufficient or poorly utilized. Obesity, Genetic mutations can cause this

Manifestations:

- Type 1: Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, sudden recent weight loss, There is a long preclinical time and people usually present to the ER with Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

- Type 2: Gradual onset with nonspecific symptoms, fatigue, recurrent infections and vaginal yeast or monilia infections, prolonged wound healing, visual changes.

- Acute Complications: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (profound deficiency of insulin, most likely with type 1 - remember to keep airway patent), Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose), and Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (life-threatening, less common, medical emergency)

- Chronic Complications: Angiopathy (Macro and Microvascular disease that effects large and medium blood vessels as well as capillaries and arterioles), Retinopathy (damage to retina due to chroinc hyperglycemia, common cause of blindness in 20-74 yr olds), Nephropathy (leading cause of end stage renal disease), Infections, integumentary problems.