A.P.U.S.H. Test Review

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Describe how American Indians shaped the environment of the Western Hemisphere
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Terms in this set (41)
Mayan: Remarkable cities in the rain forests of the Yucatan peninsula

Inca: Peruvian empire, organized, trade, developed calendar, scientific observation

Aztec: Central Mexican empire, extensive trade, calendars, science, highly organized

Pueblo: Developed cities with buildings and irrigation systems, 1st natives to revolt/have an uprising against Spanish

Iroquois: Confederacy of 5 different indian tribes, withstanding attacks from other natives and the europeans
Contrast the views of Roger Williams with more orthodox Puritans. What was the result of his dissidence? Why was Williams so instrumental in the development of individual freedom in the modern United States?Separation of church and state, founded Rhode Island, he believed that everyone should be able to practice whatever religion they wanted and founded the first truly FREE colonyTrace the development of the New England coloniesMassachusetts bay was the first to be founded, Rhode Island, Delaware, and Connecticut (dissident founded). There were lots of natural harbors that helped trade grow, but crappy land, subsistence farming, and VErY religiousDescribe the role of education in each section of the colonies. How were children educated?Mostly upper class children and boys (cuz they were sexist back then, still are but thats not the point), recitation, memorization, reading, writing, math, prayer. Teachers usually came to their houses, or they were sent to english boarding school for better education with strict disciplinary practices. (prepared to be great when they were older)List the beliefs of the QuakersShould have direct access to God. Shunned puritans. Pacifism and religious tolerance. (simple devoted and democratic people)Why was Virginia established?Mercantilism! Glory to England, tobacco plantations, opened the door the North American exploration/ colonization and conquest, escape religious persecution.What was the "headright" system and why was it necessary?Bribe. Land given to anyone who brought in laborers to the new world (labor shortage!)Trace the development of the indentured servant systemDeveloped largely to the fact that there was a shortage of laborers, allowed them a new shot in life (servants)Outline the beginnings of slavery in the coloniesSlavery began due to a shortage in laborers, and the need for workers on large plantations (Triangular trade!).Trace the development of slavery in the coloniesFirst slaves were brought into Virginia to work on the tobacco plantations, soon it spread to the rest of the middle and southern colonies. (NO SLAVES IN THE NORTH/New England)Trace the development of representative government in colonial VirginiaThe House Of Burgesses, was the first representative government in the new world and inspired other colonies to form their own assemblies. Virginia company voted to abolish martial law and implemented an legislative assemblyDescribe the first encounter between Columbus and the American Indians he met. What kinds of attitudes did both sides bring to the encounter?VERY inconsiderate and DEMANDING of the natives with the motive of gold, god, and glory. He wanted to conquer and convert such an inferior peoples . Thought he was superior and the natives went on the defense.What role did religion play in Spanish colonization?The Spanish wanted everyone to convert into CatholicismWhat were the religious and economic goals of Spanish colonization?The 3 G's (Gold, God, and Glory). Convert the natives, accumulate wealth in the form of gold and spread their influences.What were the consequences of the Columbian Exchange on the New World?Brought a whole bunch of diseases, labor, introduces new products and innovations, diffusion on ideas, benefited England.How did the Columbian Exchange impact the encomienda system?Changed the labor demographics from mostly Natives to being dominated by SLAVES (lifetime of workers).What were the consequences of the Columbian Exchange on the Old World?Made population increase greatly, due to a plethora of food (potatoes, tomatoes, corn), MERCANTILISM!Describe the role that religion played in the founding of Maryland.Founded by Lord Baltimore as a religious refuge for catholics, and as a profit.Summarize the tenets of the Maryland Act of toleration (1649)Mandated religious tolerance for all christians, people killed if they denied the divinity or existence of Jesus.How did Virginia initially solve its labor shortage?Indentured servats, slaves, and the Headlight System.How did the success of tobacco impact the Jamestown colony?Increased their population, slaves, and income (in England and in Jamestown). TOBACCO = CASH CROP = $$$ (also it was the first of many cash crops)Describe the trade routes between VirginiaWe don't need to know this. Also Good Luck On The Test!Outline the routes and products involved in Atlantic rade?Tobacco, sugar, cotton from colonies, manufactured goods and weapons from England, slaves from Africa. Middle Passage (forced africans on a hell ride from Africa, to south america, and then to the colonies. MANY DIED ON THE VOYAGE!), Triangular Trade.What issues did Britain face in controlling Atlantic trade?Colonists smuggled in goods from foreigners like the French and Dutch. Colonists also despised the imposed taxes.Describe the major intellectual and religious movements of the colonial periodEnlightenment: People have certain unalienable rights that no one, not even the government can take away. (government is supposed to protect your rights) Government reformation into a Democracy, and freedom of religion. The Great Awakening: Rapid growth of Evangelical religions such as Methodist and Baptist, first common colonial experience.Describe how major intellectual (ie. Enlightenment) and religious movements (ie. The Great Awakening) changed colonial thoughtThe new thought process united the colonists and, the ideas about the government made the colonists dislike ENGLAND'S GOV. STRUCTURE. (1st thoughts of independence found!)Describe the major conflicts between American Indians and New England colonists during the 17th centuryThe English took land, thought they were superior, and exploited the native population.How did New England colonial attitudes to American Indians impact relations between the two?Well the two treated each other like crap, but the colonists and the natives had a language barrier so i guess that contributes. VERY HOSTILE.Describe the relationship among American Indians, white settlers and the colonial government in late 17th century Virginia.Bacons Rebellion; Natives have been attacking the Virginian farmers, but the government decided to do nothing about it, so the farmers banded together and rebelled against the governor, and fought the natives.Describe the social structure of colonial VirginiaWhite landowners (mostly male) at the top. Indentured servants and slaves at the very bottom.List the effects of Bacon's rebellion on the rest of the colonies?Jamestown burned down, indentured servants from the frontier joined the rebellion, reduced taxes, and hardened racial lines between whites and slaves (A.K.A SEGREGATION)Special Thanks To....1. Diana Robles 2. Lisa Nguyen 3. Christin Hardee