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Coach Schulten US History Test 1
Terms in this set (64)
Clash of Cultures
REVIEW SHEET FROM NOTES ABOUT CLASH OF CULTURES
Reasons for European Expansion
-Seek a passage to the East
-Greed for natural resources
‣ Gold, silver, gems
-Land/glory for the grown
-Christianity (desire to convert natives)
Advantages of Europeans
◦ Agricultural output
◦ Immunity from most diseases
◦ Political organizations—>powerful nation states
‣ Crusades demonstrate european/christian ethnocentrism (idea that god wants them to convert because they are the divine superior people)
‣ Spain—> conquers Grenada from moors; tries to rule conquered people
‣ England—> conquers Ireland
• Natives were savages who must be subdued
• Settlements must retain a separation from Irish culture
• Plantation transplant English culture on foreign land
Colonization by various european nations
First to explore water route to east is Portuguese soon followed by Spain. Spain sets up new Spain, france sets up New France. The Dutch were pretty legit because of patroonship.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Pope settled disputes b/t Portugal and Spain by dividing the unconquered world in half. Portugal gets Brazil; Spain gets rest of new world
Spanish and native mix breeds
Spanish and slave mix breeds
Wealthy spanish own land, and rent it to the poor who work the land
people who governed the spanish colonization:
royal governors sent from crown to rule with absolute power
Apart of the Dutch Colonization which helped it become successful. The Dutch essentially said if you gather up 50 of your buddies and head to the new world they will give you land which you then divide up to your buds.
-Sir alter Raleigh sets up colony in outer banks of N. Carolina
‣ Goal—> raid Spanish Ship returning home with gold
‣ Raleigh goes home to promote new plant—> tobacco
‣ Upon returning, colony is gone; colonists disappear
‣ What happened?
Colony destroyed by natives?
Colonists died from elements?
Colonists adapted by local tribe?
Combination of 1-3?
: arrived too late to plant crops, settled on a swamp where mosquitoes spread disease. Gentlemanship led many of the colonists to believe they were above working, of the 150 settlers, 122 die within months.
reasons for success
: John Rolfe and John smith come in and save the day. Smith instills a strict discipline in the colonists, while also making alliances with natives. He also kidnaps Pocahontas who later marries Rolfe. Rolfe also exports sweet tobacco (sotweed/actually just weed ⛽️) so they start making bank.
After some success fails because:
Smith gets hurt and must return to england, and the colony starts to falter. The starving time occurs when supply ships from england delayed so the colonists resort to cannibalism. Due to conflicts with tribes, the virginia company goes bankrupt and king james makes it a royal colony.
◦ north— densely populated port cities, manufacturing and trade, indentured servants, religious toleration, powerful rich class
◦ Middle-port cities/trade, large middle class, religious freedom, indentured servant
◦ South-Plantation life, Protestant, small towns/sparse population, powerful rich class (aristocracy)
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
poor people from england work 4-7 years in colonies to pay off debts
‣ Many were kidnapped or swindled into indenturment
‣ Most never survived long enough to get their freedom
‣ 1st brought to virginia to help with tobacco
• dominant pop of colonies
• Lived in mostly homogenous groups
• Retained much of their cultural heritage
• Mostly smaller pop of slaves
• Some owned their own businesses, but sent % of income to masters
• Assimilated into "European" culture
Massachusetts Bay Colony
• Founded in 1630 by John Winthrop and Puritan followers
• Desired to create a "city on a hill"—> model society for rest of world to look up to.
◦ Gov't enforced puritan ethic
"City on a hill"
John Winthrop wanted Massachusetts Bay Colony to be a Puritan model society based on Christian principles. Puritans tried to live perfect lives so everyone else would look up to them.
• Established by pilgrims in Massachusetts
• Mayflower compact- 1st written constitution in America; called for direct democracy all landowning males
◦ Most colonies had an official church
◦ Nonconformists were expelled
◦ Religious toleration develops gradually
‣ many different religious groups come to America
‣ Existing churches develop splits due to Great Awakening, frontier conditions
: People were too busy surving and relying on one another to get all caught up in philosphy and religion etc.
jonathon Edwards leads a movement against established church institutions
◦ humans are sinful by nature
◦ Salvation occurs by faith alone
◦ Led people to break with both established churches as well as question civil authorities
◦ Result—religious diversity and separation of chruch and state
‣ Frontier Conditions
Characteristics of New Americans
◦ Confident in future
13 colonies, founders and purpose
Review Quiz 2 Quizlet for colonies
Joint Stock Colonies
◦ investors buy shares; colony received oral charge from king granting
‣ Specific territory
‣ # of years
‣ % of $ to go to King
• NC, SC, NY, NJ, VA, NH, Mass.
-wealthy friends of the king receive royal grants to colonize and rule
‣ High risk, high reward
‣ 1 restriction—colonial laws must be made by a colonial legislature
• Del., Mary., Penn
Foundations of Colonial rights
◦ Magna Carta
‣ All english citizens are equal under the law
‣ Parliament alone levies taxes
‣ All english citizens are guaranteed representation in parliament
◦ English Common Law
‣ Protects people against tyranny
◦ English bill of rights
‣ Guarantees human rights to everyone
• Life, liberty, and property
Examples of democracy in colonies (note: may be good prompt for hard multiple choice)
◦ Virginia House of Burgesses- landowning males make the law
◦ Mayflower compact - direct democracy; patriarchal; majority= rules
◦ Town meetings- free, landowning males belonging to church make local laws
◦ Fundamental orders of Connecticut
‣ Landowning males elect a legislature
‣ Legis, elects a governor
‣ Gov't rests upon the consent of the people
◦ Royal colonies
‣ King selects governors
‣ Governor selects upper house of legis.
‣ Voters elect lower house
‣ Gov. (and king) have veto power
◦ Proprietary Colonies
‣ Governor appointed by proprietor
‣ Voters elect legislature
◦ Charter Colonies
‣ Colonist elect governor
‣ Colonist elect 2 houses of legislature
Conflicts with Natives
King Phillips War:
1675-1678. Located in New England. It was the english colonists vs Wampanoag tribe. Metacom was upset that puritans tried Indians for murderin another Indian. Calls for retaliation. The natives initially won the battles but ultimately fell apart there were many casualties including Metacomet and the treaty of casco bay ends the war. Indians leave New England.
-1676. Located in Virginia. Native Americans vs nathanial bacon and his militia vs virginia ruling class. The settlers didn't like Berkeley's friendly policies towards natives. Bacon seizes control and Berkeley flees; he attacks the Indians. Bacon dies from dysentery. 1st time english settlers attack/revolt against gov.
-1636-1638. Located in New England. Opponents were Massachussetts bay, Plymouth colony, Saybrook, Mohegan tribe, puritans vs Pequot. The issue was that the english wanted to control the fur trade. The colonists set the pequotes fort on fire and forced them to flee, and then shot them as they ran. Resulted in the Pequot tribe being defeated and nearly 700 being killed or taken captive.
French and Indian War
-Causes: british french competition new world over trade/french claim ohio valley, build forts to drive out english settlers
◦ 1755- British General Braddock defeated by Indian ambush (aide George Washington saved survivors)
◦ 1756- french win several battles over british
◦ 1757- King George II appoint new Prime Minister William Pitt; agrees to reimburse colonists for any expense incurred while fighting french (=enormous debt for britain)
◦ 1758-Iroquois confederacy persuaded indians
◦ 1758- british retook first Duquesne; renamed it fort Pitt
◦ 1759-Br. Discovered a secret path to city, conquer Quebec
Powerful alliance of native tribes in ohio valley who stayed neutral and trade with both nations.
A hastily built British fort where Washington attempted to defeat the French. However, the French took the fort and forced Washington to surrender.
1763 Treaty of Paris
◦ French power in New World ended
◦ French territory in Canada and Ohio valley given to britain
◦ French transferred Louisiana territory to Spain
◦ Spain gave florida to britain
Basically men's beneficial neglect. Meant that england eased off on enforcement of laws in return for economic loyalty. As long as the product was flowing from the colonies, they were left unsupervised to run amuck.
Role of colonies in mercantilism
Mercantilism is an economic system in which nations seek to gain "God, gold, glory". The colonies were essentially the supply to the mother country with this wealth.
Laws enacted in 1651 that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
British legislation on colonies***
Review sheet of legislation in notes
colonists were not happy so they boycotted, smuggled goods, and held secret town meetings.
Stamp Act Crisis (1765)
Stamp Act required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for every legal document, license, newspaper, pamphlet, and almanac, and imposed special "stamp duties" on packages of playing cards and dice. The tax reached into every colonial pocket. Colonists who disobeyed the law were to be tried in the vice-admiralty courts, where convictions were probable. Boston shop-keepers, artisans, and laborers organized a secret resistance group called the Sons of Liberty. . Organize protests, tar and feather tax collectors. Also stamp act congress is formed in New York. Also Virginia resolutio, house of burgess says that only Virginians can tax Virginians. Repealed in 1776 bc of no taxation w/out represen...
Kids starting throwing snowballs at the guards in the Boston customs and just accumulated to people throwing rocks and shit. It gets so bad that someone fires a shot then they all shoot. The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing 8 americans.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor. Direct result of Tea Act
1st Continental Congress
◦ called in response to intolerable acts
◦ Issued declaration of rights and grievances
◦ Called for boycott of british goods
◦ Agreed to begin training Militias and stockpiling munitions
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances. King didn't even look at it.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
◦ british Gen. Gage takes 700 men to seize munitions and supplies at Concord
◦ Tried to arrest JOhn Hancock and Sam Adams @lexington
◦ Paul Revere warns minutemen; fighting breaks out
◦ 2nd continental congress called
2nd Continental Congress
Called after Lexington and concord.
◦ adopted mass militia (minute men) as continental army
◦ Appoint George Washington commander in chief
‣ olive branch petition
◦ Ordered an attack on Br. At Quebec
◦ Negotiated w Indians
◦ Established Navy, Marines, and postal system
◦ Encouraged privateering vs british merchant fleet
Declaration of Independence
◦ July 4, 1776. Adopted by 2nd continental congress
◦ 3 main beliefs
‣ natural right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness
‣ Gov't is chosen by people
‣ People can abolish the gov't
◦ Basic ideas
‣ intro—>necessary to dissolve bands w/britain
• All men are created equal (vs divine right)
• Inalienable Rights
• Time for a change in gov't
‣ List of grievances
• lists many "injuries and usurpations"
• colonies should become free states
◦ Effects of Declaration
‣ revolution becomes a war for independence; France and Spain assist Americans
pamphlet by Thomas Paine
‣ written in simplistic form so many colonists could understand
‣ Why stay loyal to a king who spills blood on his own subjects
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists. Also created the albany plan of union
A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Banker from philly. pledged personal money for war. Purchased rations and uniforms. Arranged foreign loans.
Great help in financing the americans
during the summer of 1776, he led hundreds of British ships and 32,000 British soldiers to New York, and offered Congress the choice between surrender with royal pardon and a battle against the odds, and despite having far fewer troops, the Americans rejected the offer.
Best remembered as one of the leading British Generals in The American Revolutionary War. His 1781 defeat by a combined American-French force at the Siege of Yorktown is generally considered to de-facto end of war, as a bulk of British troops surrendered to him.
Baron von Steuben
A stern, Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British.
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won. Fought on a day to day basis not to win, but to draw it out until british couldnt fight anymore
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
◦ home field advantage
◦ Personal stake in outcome of war
◦ Foreign support (esp. France)
◦ Good leadership at key moments
‣ Used guerilla warfare
‣ Disrupted Br. Supplies
◦ well disciplined, well trained, well equipped
◦ Many resources to finance war
◦ Strong central gov't
◦ British goals
‣ crush the rebellion by "showing the flag"
‣ Convince Americans that cause was hopeless
‣ Make it safe to surrender
‣ Anyone who laid down arms and surrendered would be pardoned
◦ American goal
‣ make it too expensive for Br. To stay long
Review notes for info on all the battles of the northern and southern campaign. Far too many for 1 flashcard.
Americans received assistance from many people as they were united by their common hate for britain. There biggest supporter was france. They gave assistance throughout the war most notably sending troops and ultimately cutting off the escape route for the british in the end of the war
Treaty of Pars (1783)
‣ Ben Franklin, john Adams, John Jay represent Americans at peace talks
‣ British offer generous terms in search of strong trade ties
• British recognize United States of America
• Miss. R is western border
• Florida goes back to Spain
• France gets back African and Carib. Colonies
• British must evacuate army from first in western territories
‣ what type of gov't do we set up?
‣ Who participates in Gov't
‣ How do we protect against tyranny of the majority?
‣ How do we pay debts?
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