29 terms

Chapter 4

the fertilized human egg, contain 23 chromosomes from the father and 23 from the mother
germinal period
the period in prenatal development from conception to implantation of the fertilized egg in the wall of the uterus
embryonic period
the period of prenatal development lasting from implantation to the end of development
fetal period
the period in prenatal development lasting from the 9th week until birth
environmental agents- such as disease organisms or drugs- that can potentially damage the developing embryo or fetus
the period during which a woman's menstrual cycle slows down and finally stops
physically based losses in mental functioning
longitudinal design
a research design in which the same people are studied or tested repeatedly over time
cross-sectional design
a research design in which people of different ages are compared at the same time
the decline in responsiveness to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented
the process through which we fit- or assimilate- new experiences into existing schemata
the process through which we change or modify existing schemata to accommodate new experiences
sensorimotor period
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development lasting from birth to about 2 years old, schemata revolve around sensory and motor abilities
object permanence
The ability to recognize that objects still exist when they're no longer in sight
Preoperational period
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development, lasting from ages 2-7; children begin to think symbolically but often lack the ability to perform mental operations such as conversation
principle of conservation
The ability to recognize that the physical properties of an object remain the same despite superficial changes in the objects appearance
the tendency to see the world from one's own unique perspective only; a characteristic of thinking in preoperational period of development
concrete operational period
Piaget's third stage of development. lasting from 7-11. Children acquire the capacity to perform a number of mental operations but still lact the ability for abstract reasoning
formal operational period
Piget's last stage of cognitive development; thought processes become adultlike and people gain mastery over abstract thinking
the ability to distinguish between apporopriate and inappropriate actions
Preconventional level
in Kohlberg's theory, the lowest level of moral development, in which decisions about right and wrong are made primarily in terms of external consequences
conventional level
in Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the stage in which actions are judged to be right or wrong are made primarily in terms of external consequences
Conventional level
The stage in which actions are judged to be right or wrong based on whether they maintain or disrupt the social order
postconverstaional level
the stage in which moral actions are judged on basis of a personal code of ethics that is general and abstract and that may not agree with societal norms
strong emotional ties formed to one or more intimate companions
A child's general level of emotional reactivity
Strange situation test
Gradually subjecting a child to a stressful situation and observing his or her behavior toward the parent or the caregiver- used to classify children according to type of attachment - secure, resistant, avoidant, or disorganized/ disoriented
personal identity
A sense of who is an individual and how one measures up against peers
gender roles
specific patterns of behavior that are consistent with how society dictates males and females should act