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85 terms

AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocab

AP Human Geography Unit 3 Vocab
STUDY
PLAY
acculturation
adoption of some culture traits of the surrounding culture
animism
doctrine that everything natural has a soul
artifacts
ancient objects made by human beings
assimilation
when one larger culture completely absorbs a different smaller culture
Baha'i
new faith founded in Iran
behaviors
observable actions or becuase of beliefs
beliefs
ideas that people hold to be true
bilingualism
ablility to speak two languages
Buddhism
Buddhists believe that the ultimate goal in life is to achieve "enlightenment" as they perceive it. Founder:siddhartha 3 main branches : mahyana(believes gods and godess) , theravada(the old teaching), tantrayana (magic and diff meditation technique)
Confucianism
the teachings that encourage love for humanity
contagious diffusion
rapid and widespread diffusion
creole
mother tongue that originates from a pidgin
cultural determinism
the belief that cultural influences determine the behaviors and personalities of people
cultural diffusion
spread of cultural ideas from one society to another
cultural ecology
study of human relationship to culture and nature.
cultural geography
looks at how cultures vary over space.
cultural hearths
place of origin of a culture
cultural landscape
visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
cultural relativism
practice of judging a culture by its own standards no bias
cultural transmission
process by which one generation passes culture to the next
culture complex
common culture traits that make a group in an area distinct from others
culture region
area marked by culture that distinguishes it from other regions
culture system
strong cultural ties that bind its people
culture trait
single element of normal practice in a culture
Daoism
religion that emphasizes a simple, honest life
dialect
usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people; branches off of a language
diaspora
forced people from lands of origin
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Eastern Orthodox
minor branch, 12 percent, split from Roman Catholicism in the 11th century, strong in Eastern Europe and Russia
environmental determinism
view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
ethnic religion
a religion that appeals to one place
ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
extinct religion
religion that is no longer practiced
folk culture
culture usually practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
folk culture region
an area where many people who live in a land space share at least some traditions or customs
folk life
composite culture of folk societies
geographic region
culture system that intertwines with location and environmental circumstances to form a geographic region
Torsten Hagerstrand
was a geographer that wrote about cultural diffusion(migration)
hierarchical diffusion
spread of an idea from nodes of authority or power to persons or places with less power
Hinduism
religion practiced by majority of India,Hindus believe in a universal soul and God called Brahman who takes on many forms that some Hindus worship as gods or goddesses.
humanism
dont beleive in god but thinks highly of all humans. concentrated about people
independent invention
developments that can be traced to a specific civilization
Indo-European language family
language family spoken in most of Europe and areas of European settlement and in much of southwestern and southern Asia
Islam
monotheistic religion practiced mainly in Middle East. two branches sunni and shietes. disagreement over rightful successor. sunni beleived succesor should be voted by religious leader and shites believed it should be a family of Muhammad. (muslum)
isogloss
boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
Judaism
first monotheistic religion started in Israel(ethnic religion). Christianity and islam have roots in judiasm. jesus was a jew and muhammed traced his ancestor to abraham.
language
vocal or written communication
language families
group of languages with a shared origin
language sub-family
group of languages with more in common than a language family
lingua franca
a common language that comes to be spoken and understood over a large area
linguistic fragmentation
many languages spoken by a small group of people.
linguistic geography
study of the geographical distribution of language
Mahayana
Big Wheel; broad incorporation of ideas and gods from other religions
Marxism
economic and political theories that say human actions and institutions are economically determined
material culture
relationship between artifact and social relations
migrant diffusion
when an innovation originates somewhere and enjoys strong-but brief-adoption, loses strength at origin by the time it reaches another area
monotheistic religion
religion with one god
multilingualism
ability to speak more than two languages
non-material culture
human creations, such as values, that are not embodied in physical objects
norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
official language
language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of busines and publication of documents
pidgin
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
popular culture
culture found in a heterogeneous society
Protestants
split from catholic church in 16th century, divided into hundreds of denominations; strong in north america
regional identity
an awareness of being a part of a group of people living in a culture region
branches, denominations, sects
large and general divisions
small divisions that branch off of the branches
even smaller groups
relocation diffusion
spread of a feature or trend through movement of people
Roman Catholics
major branch of CHristianity
Sauer, Carl
American geographer that wrote about diffusion
shamanism
animistic religion of northern Asia
Shiite
one of the two primary branches of Islam
Sikhism
a monotheistic religion founded in northern India
standard language
form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
stimulus diffusion
diffusion in which one people receives a culture element from another but gives it a new and unique form
Sunni
one of the two primary branches of Islam
symbolic landscape
smaller landscapes that symbolize a bigger area
symbols
motifs that stand for other things or ideas
syncretism
combining of beliefs
Tantrayana
The Buddhist yana whose path is the transformation of neurotically confused emotions into their enlightened equivalents.
Theraveda
Way of the Elders
time-distance decay
declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source.
toponymy
branch of naming that studies the place names of a region or a language
traditional religion
original religion
transculturation
cultural borowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
universalizing religion
religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.