10.2 Enlightenment, Revolution, and Nationalism

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abolish
to stop something from happening or end something
absolute monarchy
system of government where one person has absolute control
audience
the person or group of people that a message is for
Baron de Montesquieu
(1689-1755) French Enlightenment thinker who wrote The Spirit of Laws and believed that to keep one person or group from gaining too much power a government should be separated into three branches: judicial, legislative, and executive.
Camillo di Cavour
(1810-1861) a politician and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in Northern Italy and later Prime Minister of Italy who was a leader of the Italian unification movement
Catherine the Great
(1729-1796) an enlightened despot who ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796
Catholic Church
an organized Christian church led by Pope centered in Rome
citizen
a resident of a town or city, especially one entitled to civic privileges such as voting
clergy
people who work for a church; In the Catholic Church these include the Pope, bishops, and priests
Congress of Vienna
(1815) meeting of representatives from powerful states in Europe to redraw the map of Europe to restore it to pre-Napoleon conditions and to establish a balance of power that will prevent future wars
consent
permission for something to happen or an agreement to do something
consolidate
to join together or combine
constitution
the set of basic laws and principles by which a nation, state, or other organization is governed
constitutional monarchy
a form of government in which a king or queen's powers are restricted by a document (constitution) usually written by representatives of the people who are governed by the king or queen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
(1789) document written by the National Assembly which outline the ideals of the French Revolution
democracy
(1810-1861) a politician and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in Northern Italy and later Prime Minister of Italy who was a leader of the Italian unification movement
divine right
is the belief that an absolute monarch's authority to rule came directly from God
enduring issue
a challenge or problem that has been debated or discussed across time
enlightened
Influenced by the writings of the Enlightenment philosophers who supported natural rights, the separation of power in a government, the consent of the governed, social contract, and the freedom of expression.
Enlightenment (The)
(mid-1600s to the late 1700s) a period of time in Western Europe when philosophers and writers applied the scientific idea of reason to answer political questions; The Enlightenment is sometimes known as the Age of Reason
equality
the state of being equal
executive
the part of a government that enforces laws- the president, governor, or mayor
Father Miguel Hidalgo
(1753-1811) a Mexican Roman Catholic priest who was a leader of the Mexican War of Independence
French Revolution
(1789-1799) a political revolution during which the lower and middle class in France, frustrated over social, economic, and political problems in the country and inspired by Enlightenment ideas overthrew King Louis XVI and tried to institute a more democratic government
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(1807-1882) a general and Italian nationalist who was a leader of the Italian unification movement
Giuseppe Mazzini
(1805-1872) a politician, journalist and Italian nationalist who was a leader of the Italian unification movement
govern
to rule or lead
government
the group of people that has power to make laws and important decisions for a community, state, or nation
Haitian Revolution
(1791-1804) a successful slave revolt and revolution that led to Haiti's independence from France
hereditary
having to do with characteristics that are passed on from parent to child
hierarchy
a system for ranking groups of people
historical context
the events that led to an event; includes the time period and larger historical trends as well as causes
independence movement
an attempt by one group to become independent from another
institution
an organization founded for a religious, educational, social, or similar purpose like a government
intellectual
a well-educated person
Jean Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778) French Enlightenment thinker who wrote about the social contract
John Locke
(1632-1704) an English Enlightenment thinker who wrote Two Treatises of Governmentand believed that the role of government is to protect people's natural rights (life, liberty, and property), and that government can only get its right to rule from the consent of the governed
José de San Martín
(1778-1850) an Argentine general and leader of South America's independence movement from Spain
judiciary
the part of a government that interprets laws- courts, judges
legislature
the part of a government that makes laws- parliament or congress
liberty
the freedom to do what you would like to do
Louis XVI
(1754-1793) king of France who was overthrown and executed during the French Revolution
Mary Wollstonecraft
(1759-1797) English writer and philosopher who was an advocate for women's rights and wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Maximilien Robespierre
(1758-1794) leader of the Committee of Public Safety and the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution who was executed
monarch
king or queen
Napoleon Bonaparte
(1769-1821) military leader and later emperor of France who brought order and stability towards the end of the Revolution. He attempted to conquer all of Europe, but failed and was eventually exiled to a remote island for the rest of his life
Napoleonic Code
(1804) law code established by Napoleon Bonaparte that served as an example for the law codes of other countries
Napoleonic Wars
(1803-1815) a series of major wars in Europe during which Napoleon Bonaparte I attempted to conquer the continent, after his final defeat Napoleon was exiled to an island in the Atlantic Ocean and European powers redrew the borders in the continent at the Congress of Vienna
nationalism
strong feelings of support for one's nation
natural right
right that all people are born with and that John Locke believed the government should protect including the rights to life, liberty, and property; sometimes called "natural laws"
oppress
to treat in a way that is cruel or not fair
Otto Von Bismarck
(1815-1898 ) a politician who was Minister President of Prussia and later Imperial Chancellor of the German Empire who was a leader of German unification. He practiced a policies called realpolitik and "Blood and Iron."
peasant
a person in the lower class
philosopher
one who thinks about, questions, and studies the nature of life, truth, knowledge, and other important human matters
point of view
an opinion; a claim
property
something someone owns
reason
the power of the mind to think, understand, and make sense of world
Reign of Terror
(Sept 5, 1793- July 28, 1794) a period of intense violence in the French Revolution led by Maximilien Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety
reliability
the usefulness of information in a source for a given purpose
separation of powers
Montesquieu's idea that government power should be divided into judicial, legislative, and executive branches and that each section of the government should have the ability to check the power of the others
Simón Bolívar
(1783-1830) leader of Latin American Independence movements in South America
social contract
an agreement, the social contract, in which we promise to follow the "general will" of the members of the society as expressed by the laws made by the government. In exchange, we receive the liberty to do what we want as long as we do not break those laws.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
(1743-1803) an ex-slave and leader of the Haitian Revolution
tyranny
a government in which a single person rules absolutely in a cruel way
women's rights movement
an attempt to bring social, political, and economic rights to women
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