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Baroque organ characteristics
In ensemble music, it provided the continuo (continuous bass), and used extensively for solos.
Used in church & home, had a pure, transparent timbre.
Colors produced by the various sets of pipes contrasted sharply, so that the ear could pick out the separate lines of the counterpoint.
Made it possible to achieve terraced levels of soft AND loud!
created by Baroque composers
A concerto for solo instrument and an acommpanying instrumental group. Ex. Antonio Vivaldi
Violin was featured the most frequently in this concerto.
3 movements: Allegro, Adagio, Allegro
Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments (the concertino) and orchestra (the ripieno). Ex. Bach's 6 Brandenburg Concertos
A contapunctal composition in which a single theme pervades the entire fabric, entering in one voice and then in another.
Based on the principle of imitation
Main theme: Subject
Interlude or intermediate section in the Baroque fugue that serves as an area of relaxation between statements of the subject
In a fugue, when entries of the subject occur at faster intervals of time, so that they overlap forming dense, imitative counterpoint. Stretto usually occurs at the climactic moment near the end.
A term from the visual arts that is frequently applied to 18th century, characterized by simplicity, grace, & delicate ornamentation
Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714-1787) was a pioneer of opera reform
German-born, trained in Italy
Sought to free opera from outmoded conventions
In his operas, the words are master to the music, no over-embellishment
He sought "simplicity, truth, and naturalness" in composition
3rd section of sonata- allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is restated, generally in the tonic.
Transitional passage connecting 2 sections of a composition; also transition. Also the part of a string
Classical period melodies
Singable, lyrical melody
Regular rhythms and meters
Homophonic texture (melody with accompanying harmony)
Frequent use of folk elements
Melodies are usually based on symmetrical 4 bar phrases marked by clear- cut cadences, and they often move stepwise or by small leaps within a narrow range.
A fanciful solo passage in the manner of an improvisation that, toward the end, interrupts the movement.
Evolved from a time when improvisation was an important element in art music (jazz, world music)
In solo concerto, it has a dramatic effect: the orchestra falls silent and the soloist launches into a free play of fantasy on one or more themes of the movement
Its strings were not plucked by quills rather than struck with hammers, and its tone could not be sustained like that of the piano, a product of the early Classical era. The pressure of the fingers on the keys varied the tone only slightly, producing subtle dynamic nuances but not the piano's extremes of loud and soft.
Suite: Each movement is A-A-B-B
Allemande (German dance in moderate duple time; often the 1st movement of a Baroque suite)
Courante (French Baroque dance; standard movement of the suite, in triple meter at a moderate tempo)
Sarabande (Stately Spanish baroque dance type in triple meter, a standard movement of the Baroque suite)
Gigue (jig, a standard movement of the Baroque suite, in a lively compound meter)
Other optional dances: minuet, gavotte, bourree, passepied
Repeated sections ornamented second time
German "sensitive" style of the mid 18th century, characterized by melodic directness and homophonic texture.
Wrote for the Imperial Court Theater at Vienna, notably Orpheus and Eurydice (1762) and Alceste (1767). Successfully fused a number of elements: the monumental choral scenes and the broadly arching vocal line that was part of Europe's operatic heritage. The result was a music drama whose truth and expressiveness profoundly affected the course of operatic history.
Theme and variations form
Theme is clearly stated at the outset and serves as the point of departure. Melody may be newly invented or borrowed. The theme is likely to be a small two- or three- part idea, simple in character to allow room for elaboration. Statement of the theme is followed by a series of structured variations in which certain features of the original idea are retained while others are altered . Each variation sets forth the idea with some new modification- one might say in a new disguise- through which the listener glimpses something of the original theme.
Musical family (singers in court of local prince)
Unhappy childhood (father was an alcoholic)
Ludwig supported family financially from an early age
Began career as court musician at 11
At 17 played piano for Mozart in Vienna
Extremely talented pianist
Welcomed to Vienna by powerful patrons
Forced patrons to treat him as an equal, not as a servant
Career in Vienna was one of modified patronage
Was not responsible to any specific patron, but was supported financially by many
Career was further aided by concert life and publishing of his music
Suffered hearing loss in his late 20s
Eventually lost his hearing completely
Personality was that of eccentric genius
Died at age 57, famous and revered
Theory of cause of death: lead poisoning
Recently, DNA from lock of his hair has been analyzed
Exhibits high levels of lead
2. His Music
Three compositional periods
1st: early career, influenced by Haydn and Mozart
2nd: middle career, more "Romantic"
Emotion over form
Expanded dimensions of the symphony
Slow movement acquired a hymnlike character
Scherzo replaced minuet
3rd: late career, introspective; chromatic harmonies
The symphony was Beethoven's ideal medium to reach the public
Symphony Nos. 1 and 2, Classical in style
Symphony No. 3, Eroica, mature style
Dedicated to Napoleon when he was fighting for the people
Undedicated when Napoleon crowned himself emperor
Symphony Nos. 5 and 7, enjoyed universal appeal
Symphony No. 9, Choral Symphony
Voices are added in the finale, in a setting of Schiller's Ode to Joy
Concertos, piano sonatas, chamber music, vocal music, 1 opera (Fidelio)
3. Beethoven: Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 (Listening Guide 21)
Perhaps the best known of all symphonies
Rhythmic idea "three shorts and a long" (S-S-S-L) dominates entire work
An example of cyclical form
Begins in C minor, ends in C major
I: Allegro con brio tempo, sonata-allegro form, with long coda
S-S-S-L dominates the texture
II: Serene double theme and variations, recurrence of same rhythmic idea
III: Scherzo and trio, opens with a rocket theme
Transitional passage links the third and fourth movements
Recurrence of S-S-S-L
IV: Sonata-allegro form
Recurrence of same rhythmic theme, extended coda
Austrian composer, pianist, violinist
Father (Leopold) was a composer and violinist
Child prodigy, began writing music before age 5
Traveled extensively, absorbed a variety of musical styles
Rebelled against social restrictions of patronage system
Dismissed by patron, Archbishop of Salzburg
Began career as freelance musician at age 25
Struggled for financial security
Married Constanze Weber, against his father's wishes
Lived only to age 35
Significant contributions to all musical genres
Symphony, sonata, concerto, chamber music, sacred music, opera
Most successful operas written with librettist Lorenzo da Ponte
Final years marked by fevered desperation
Last work was the Requiem Mass, left unfinished
Theories on early death (at 35): rheumatic fever, heart disease, trichinosis
2. His Music
Ludwig Köchel cataloged Mozart's works chronologically
Works are listed with a K followed by a number
The chronology is being revised continuously
His music is filled with a wealth of elegant and songful melodies
Large compositional output for instruments:
Social music (divertimentos and serenades)
Eine kleine Nachtmusik (1787): serenade for strings
Chamber music: favored the string quartet
Piano music: an outstanding pianist himself, he wrote many works for his own instrument, including 27 piano concertos
Symphonies: with his works they became the most significant form of abstract music in this period
Exact number of symphonies is hard to determine, probably more than 50
Opera: most central to Mozart's art, he wrote in all three styles
Opera buffa: Italian comic opera
The Marriage of Figaro
Opera seria: Italian serious opera
Singspiel: lighter form of German opera with spoken dialogue
The Magic Flute
3. Mozart: Eine kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525 (Listening Guide 19)
"A Little Night Music"
Serenade for strings (doubled string quartet with a double bass)
Meant for outdoor public performance
Four movements (originally five)
I: Allegro, in G major
Opens with ascending melody, "rocket theme"
Second theme is contrasting, more graceful
II: Romanza, Andante tempo (walking pace), in C major
III: Allegretto tempo, in G major
Minuet and trio form
IV: Allegro in G major
Sonata-rondo form (hybrid form)
In the concerto, twofold statement of the themes, once by the orchestra and once by the soloist
Haydn and the string quartet
1. Haydn worked under the patronage of the Esterházy court
Works were critical to the development of Classical music
Of particular importance: symphony and string quartet
2. Joseph Haydn (1732-1809): His Life
Born in rural Austria
Folk song and dance were his natural heritage
Choirboy at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna
After his voice broke at age 16, made living in Vienna
At age 29 entered the service of the Esterházys
Wealthy Hungarians with a passion for the arts
The palace of the Esterházys called Esterháza
Splendid Esterháza boasted an opera house
Late in his career, Haydn made two successful trips to England
Died after a long career (1809); revered as the premier composer of the time
3. His Music
String quartet occupied a central position in Haydn's output
Over 100 symphonies
London Symphonies: 12 written in the 1790s for his trips to England
Prolific composer of church music (Masses, oratorios, etc.)
4. Haydn: Symphony No. 94 in G minor (Surprise) (Listening Guide 20)
One of the London Symphonies
Written for 40-member orchestra
Strings, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons,
2 French horns, 2 trumpets, harpsichord, timpani
I: Vivace assai tempo, sonata-allegro form
II: Slower tempo (Andante), theme and variations form
Theme is presented in C major by the violins
Theme is played staccato (short, detached notes)
Theme is repeated pianissimo, ends abruptly, the "surprise"
Four variations follow
Coda closes the movement
III: Allegro molto tempo, minuet form
G major, high-spirited and folklike
Captures the charm and humor of folk dance
IV: Allegro molto tempo, sonata-allegro form
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