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73 terms

US HISTORY Unit 4

Vocab Words for US HISTORY
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Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Middle passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Chattel slavery
ownership of human beings; a system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought as sold like property.
Forms of rebellion
In the 1950s, both the beat movement and rock 'n' roll were viewed as
Missouri Compromise
an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
Mexican War and Mexican Cession
after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
Popular Sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
Bleeding Kansas
Term referring to bloodshed over popular sovereignty in a particular western territory
Bleeding Sumner
Charles Sumner, against slavery; Preston Brooks beat Sumner with a cane, pro slavery preston brooks beat sumner with a cane
Dred Scott Decision
Landmark court decision that ruled that slaves were property and antislavery laws were unconstitutional
Raid at Harpers Ferry
John Brown led a group of followers to the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in VA. He thought enslaved African Americans would revolt. However Robert E. Lee's troops caputred Brown and killed 10 raiders
Know Nothing Party
When people were asked about this party thehy would say i know nothing
Republican Party
Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers, in defiance to the Slave Powers
Election of 1860
The election in which Abraham Lincoln was first elected President due to the schism of the Democrats. Caused a chain reaction of southern states to secede from the Union since they were afraid of Lincoln's policies.
Abraham Lincoln
U.S. statesmen, 16th president. Led Union to victory in Civil War. Assassinated. Sometimes called "Honest Abe".
Secession
the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Upper South States
Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia.
Lower South States
Texas, Lousiana, Mississippi, A;abama, Georgia, South Carolina, Florida.
Border States
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
Preston Brooks
Responsible for beating radical republican Charles Sumner with his cane
Charles Sumner
Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets caned by Preston Brooks
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
does not want to see any further slavery. Saw slavery as an expanding institution and wanting more territory. Sees a moral issue with slavery.
Anaconda Plan
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
Clara Barton
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
Army of Northern Virginia
major confederate army. number one task was to protect Richmond.
Army of Potomac
Commanded first by Hooker and later by George C. Meade.
Draft riots
were a series of violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War
General Ulysses S. Grant
Was 18 president and the toughest general ever in the union army. He was fearless and won many battles. but he would rather farm than be in the army.
General Robert E. Lee
Commander of Confederate Army. Great leader, Lincoln wanted him as the leader of the Union Army
General George McClellan
Cautious by nature, which made him a poor general because he did not like it fight.. Fought in the Mexican War. Replaced General Winfield Scott. Planned to capture Richmond, as it was the capital of the Confederacy and one of the few industrial cities in the South
General Stonewall Jackson
Lee's right-hand man/ shot by own man at the Battle of Chancellorsville
General William T. Sherman
he was sent out in 1864 by General Grant to capture Atlanta, Georgia, an important city to the Confederates
General Benjamin Butler
Gov of MA, represented MA in house of representatives during war. during civil war occupied new orleans. policies: slaves were to be regarded as contraband in spite of fugitive slave act. butler's general order no. 28: any woman who insulted officer="woman of the town playing her avocation" aka prositute. postbellum: radical repub. wrote civil rights act of 1871 + proposed civil rights act of 1875 with charles sumner (though wasnt passed.) prominent role in impeachment of johnson.
Slave contraband
An item taken away from the enemy and used against them. Phrase that was commonly used to describe a slave the union captured.
Battle of Bull Run
first major battle of the civil war; fought in virginia in 1861; proved that the war was going to be long and costly.
Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
feb. 1862,TN, Grant captures these two forts on the TN river and Cumberland river
Antietam
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
Battle of Fort Wagner
Took place in South Carolina where the 54th fought bravely but lost the battle
54th Massachusetts Infantry
First African American soldiers recruited by the Union and this regiment earned honorable mentions in US military
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Battle of Vicksburg
Union gains control of Mississippi, Grant takes lead, total war begins
March to the Sea
Sherman's march to Savannah which cut off confederate supplies received by the sea
Lee surrenders
appomattox courthouse, said id rather die a thousand deaths than talk to Grant
Total war
the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
13 Amendment
abolished slavery
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
freedmen
former slaves
Freedman's Bureau
(1865-72), during the Reconstruction period after the American Civil War, popular name for the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, established by Congress to provide practical aid to 4,000,000 newly freed black Americans in their transition from slavery to freedom
Black Codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Impeachment
a formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
10% Plan
This was Lincoln's reconstruction plan for after the Civil War. Written in 1863, it proclaimed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the 1860 election pledged their allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by emancipation, and then formally erect their state governments. This plan was very lenient to the South, would have meant an easy reconstruction.
Wade Davis Bill
bill passed by congress and vetoed by president lincoln that would have given congress control of reconstruction
Presidential Reconstruction
was the President's idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
Radical Reconstruction
Was a period in United States history, 1863-1877, that resolved the issues of the American Civil War when both the Confederacy and its system of slavery were destroyed
Thaddeus Stevens
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the United States
John Wilkes Booth
United States actor and assassin of President Lincoln (1838-1865)
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Red Shirts
Garibaldi's army of 1000 red-shirted volunteers
White League
organization established to restore political powar to the pre-Civil War white democrats and did not hesitate to use violence to achieve that end `
Election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Jim Crow Laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Segregation
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups