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Capitalism/Free Market Economy
means of production and distribution are privately owned and development is proportionate to the profits gained.
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Elite Class Theory
theory that our society is divided by class lines and upper classes have special privileges
form of government with unified states that have central authority, but can make some individual decisions
Form of government in which people vote for the legislative body, which in turn selects the prime minister.
theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a completion among groups, each one going for their own goals
Policy making System
Processes that policies come into being and evolve over time. People's interests, and worries create political issues
all activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or their policies
A form of government in which the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative branch, and both branches are separate, independent, and co-equal.
basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers
democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people
Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
state governed by single unit; central government is supreme and any sub-units derive power from central government
Advice and Consent
it occurs when the legislative branch approves something and then it is enacted by the executive branch
opponents of the American constitution at a time when the states were contemplating its adoption
Articles of Confederation
1st constition of the US; adopted by congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781; established a national legislature, the continental congress, but most authority rested in state legislatures
use of both the Virginia and New Jersey Plan (Conn. compromise) in which we have representation from a senate (2 reps. per state) and House(reps. based on pop)
Bills of Attainder
Act of Legistature saying a person or group of people are (is) guilty of crime(s) and punishing them without trial
Bill of Rights
1st ten amendments in the US Constitution; drafted in response to some Anti-Federalists concerns; they define basic liberties
Checks and Balances
Features of the Constitution that limit governments power by requiring that power be balanced among different governmental institutions, these institutions continually constrain each others activities
compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established 2 houses in Congress: House of Representatives and the Senate
Nation's Basic laws; it creates political institutions, assigns or devides power in gov., and often provides certain guarantees to citizens; can be written or unwritten
Declaration of Independence
document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British Monarch and declared their independence
Congress shall have power to make all laws which shall be necessary and popper for caring into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution...
A unique American institution created by the constitution that provides for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties; votes usually represent a popular majority, the winner take all rule usually used in big states
Powers of the federal gov. that are specifically addressed in the constitution; for congress these powers are in article 1 section 8
Ex-Post Facto Laws
a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status)of actions that were committed or relationships that existed before the enactment of a law
Supporters of the US Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption
Newspapers filled with letters and Articles praising or condemning the constitution. Three men prising it were Alexander Hamilton, James Madison & John Hay. It is one of the few ways we see the thought going into the constitution
Powers of the federal gov. that go beyond those enumerations in the Constitution. The Constitution states that Congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for caring into execution"
enumerated power listed in the US Constitution (1:8:3) .The clause states that the US Congress shall have power to "regulate commerce with foreign Nations, & among several states, & with the Indian Tribes
power of the courts to determine weather acts of congress, & by implications the executive, are in accord with the US Constitution
Idea that certain things are out of bounds for gov. because of natural rights of citizens
fundamenal philosophy of Presidential conduct that adheres primarily to the denoted powers of the executive branch in the US Constitution
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on gov. (life, liberty, & property), Concept was central to John Locke
Necessary and Proper Clause
Congress shall have power - to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forgoing powers, and all other power voted by this Constitution.
New Jersey Plan
proposal at Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress
principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people (rule by the people) who are the source of all political power
a principle's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principle
Separation of powers
feature of the Constitution that requires each of the threee branches of gov. to be relatively independent of the others so that on cannot control the others, Power shared equally
series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings
Social Contract Theory
theory that addresses the questions of the origins of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual
establishes the US Constitution, federal statuses, and US treaties as the supreme law of the land
compromise between sothern and northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which 3/5 of enumerated pop. of slaves would be counted for rep. purposes regarding both distribution of taxes and a proportionate rep of the house
document written in 1787 and Ratified in 1788 that sets fourth the institutional structure of the US gov. and tasks these institutions; replaces the Articles of confederation
Proposal at the constitutional convention that called for representation of the each state in congress in proportion to the population
Writ of Habeas Corpus
court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
Federal Grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development
Federal Grants that can be used only for specific purposes of state and local spending; strings are attached
Clause from Constitution giving congress power to regulate interstate and intrastate commerce
Powers and Policies assignment are shared between state and national government
Devolution/ New Federalism
transferring responsibility for policy from the federal gov. to state and local gov.
Both the States and National gov. remain supreme within in their own policy spheres, each responsible for some policies
Expressed or Enumerated or Delegated Powers
Powers explicitly given to Congress through the Constitution
legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the official of one state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed
way of organizing a nation so that state levels of gov. have formal authority over the same land and people; it is a system of shared power between units of government
pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the Federal system; cornerstone of the national gov.'s relations with state and local gov.
Describes the impact of the federal budget - taxes, spending, and borrowing, on the economy; almost always determined by Congress and the President
Federal Categorical Grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administration regulations
Full Faith and Credit Clause
(4:1) requires each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgement rendered by the courts of another state
A higher level of Government tells a lower branch to make a law and it is paid for by the higher level
obligateions of states to each other; FULL FAITH AND CREDIT CLAUSE, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNIZES, EXTRADITION
workings of the Federal system - the entire set of interactions among national, state and local government
Necessary and Proper Clause/Elastic Clause
(1:8) authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry our enumerated powers
privileges and immunities
(4:2)Accords citizens of each state most of the privileges of other states
Federal Grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications
"powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states are reserved to the states respectfully or to the people"
A higher level of Government tells a lower branch to make a law and it is NOT paid for by the higher level
Relationship in Federal Gov. where central gov. is at the top, then state, and local
legal constitutional protections against gov.; our civil liberties are set down in the bill of rights, the courts, poliece, and legislature defining their meanings
Constitutional Amendment adopted after or civil war that states "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or communities of citizens of the US; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without the due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws"
legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the stats through the 14th Amendment
part of the 1st Amendment stating that "Congress shall make no law respection an establishment of Religion."
Free exercise clause
1st amendment provision that prohibits gov. from interfering with the practice of religion
preventing material from being published; common method of limiting the press in some nations, usually unconstitutional in the US; acording to the 1st Amendment as confirmed in the SCOTUS case Near v. Minnesota
Non-Verbal communication such as burning a flag or wearing an armband; SCOTUS has accorded some symbolic speach protection under the 1st Amendment
Communication in the form of advertising; can be restricted more than many other types of speech, but has been recieving increased protection from SCOTUS
part of the 14th Amendment guaranteeing that persons cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property by the US or state gov. without the due process of law
situation occurring when the police have reason to believe a person should be arrested; making the arrest, police are allowed to legally search and seize incriminating evidence
legal standard of proof in US law that is less than probable cause; the legal stand for arrests and warrants, it is mostly based on "specific and articulatable facts"
Unreasonable Search and Seizure
Obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, a practice prohibited by the 4th Amendment
written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for
rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into trail if it was not constitutionally obtained; prohibits use of evidence obtained through Unreasonable search and seizure
Plain View Rule
rule that a laws enforcement officer may take a search and seizure without a search warrant if evidence of criminal activity or the product of a crime can be seen without entry or a search
Constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection, double jeopardy, self incrimination, & punishment without due process of law
when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a whitness against themselves in Court. 5th Amendment forbids this
Constitutional Amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to council, the right to confront a witness, and the right to a speedy and public trial
Bargain struck between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime in exchange for the states promise not to prosecute the defendant for a more serious crime, or additional, crime
Constitutional Amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment although it does not define this phrase; the 14th amendment applies this to the states
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Court sentences prohibited by the Eighth Amendment. Although the Supreme Court has ruled that mandatory death sentences for certain offenses are unconstitutional, it has not held that the death penalty itself constitutes cruel and unusual punishment.
policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged group
American Association of Retired People (AARP)
United States based non-gov. organization and interest group for people age 50 and over
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
law passed that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in emplyment
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminative treatment by gov. officials or individuals
Civil Rights Act (1964)
law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
issue raised when women are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
Equal Pay Act (1963)
US federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex
Equal Protection of the Laws
Part of the 14th Amendment emphasizing that laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people; it should provide "equal protection of Life, Liberty, & Property" to all states citizens
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
constitutional amendment originally introduced in 1923, passed in 1972; "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or any other state on account of sex"; failed to acquire necessary support from 3/4 state legislatures
temp that refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates (support spending on social services and oppose more military spending)
term used to describe "the unseen, yet unbroken/unbreakable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements."
one method used by Southern States to deny Blacks from voting; it exempted whites from taking tests if there grandfathers could vote
Jim Crow Laws
State and Local laws in the US that mandated de jure segrigation in all Southern States Public facilities
National Association for the advancement of Colored People (NAACP
Organization with the mission to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination
Small taxes, levied on the right to vote, that often fell due at a time of the year when poor black sharecroppers had the least cash on hand; used in most Southern States
discrimination against members of a dominant or majority group or in favor of members of a minority or historically disadvantaged group
Separate but Equal
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
Title 9 of the Civil Rights Act (1964)
made it easier to move civil rights cases with segregationalist judges and all white juries in federal court
Title 9 of the Higher Education Act (1972)
prohibits discrimination of any activity receiving federal aid or schools
A valuable tool for understanding demographic changes. US government requires one every ten years
The mixing of cultures, ideas, and people that had changed the American nation; our immigration has often been called a this
Emergence of a non-caucasian majority, as compared with a white, Anglo-Saxon, majority
Process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every ten years on basis of the results of the census
The process through which a young person acquires political orientations as they grow up, based on inputs from parents, teachers, the media, and friends
A relatively small portion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of a whole
Key technique employed by sophisticated survey researchers, which operates on the principle that everyone should have equal probability of being selected as part of the sample
The level of confidence in the findings of a public opinion poll; the more people sampled the more confidence one can be of the results
Technique used by pollsters to place telephone calls randomly to both listed and unlisted numbers when conducting a survey
Public opinion surveys used by major media pollsters to predict electoral winners with speed and precision
Coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose; it helps give meaning to political events, personalities, and policies
Term used to refer to a regular pattern by which women are more likely to support democratic candidates; women tend to be less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and oppose higher levels of military spending
all activities used by citizens to influence the selection of leaders or the polices they pursue
Form of political participation designed to achieve policy change through dramatic and unconventional tactics
Form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences
political participation that attempts to influence the political process though well accepted, often moderate forms of persuasion
process of setting electoral districts; attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries to create partisan advantaged districts
Group Benefit Voters
42% of the voters; based on how candidates serve the need of the social group (upper, middle, lower class) they belong to
people who very strongly support and they are guided by the ideology of a particular group
system of classifying different pol. positions up on one or more geometric axes that symbolize independent pol. dimensions
analogy used instead of Melting Pot because it assumes that Americans are all different peoples that are no assimilated, but still together
that which is not bound to any accordance that is generally believed or done
an advertisement whose message is meant as a personal attack against another candidate or political party
propaganda technique that seeks to manipulate audiences perception of an issue by emphasizing one side and uppressing another
Campaign Finance Reform
political effort in US to exchange the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns
Freedom of Information Act
allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the US government
Gate Keeper Function
to filter out certain people who wish to communicate with the Gate Keepers boss; filter information before public release to protect the audience from receiving damaging or disturbing information
vague word of or phrase use to evolve positive feelings rather than to convey information
politics in which behavior of citizens and policymakers and thee agenda itself are shaped by technology
use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, which at times, puts reporters in adversarial relationships with political leaders
Marketplace of Ideas
rational for freedom of expression based on an analogy to the economic concept of a free market
television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and other means of popular communication; key part of high tech politics
events purposely staged for the media that nonetheless looks spontaneous; can be staged by individuals, groups, and government officials
transmit a television program to a comparatively small audience defined by special interest or geographical location
issues that attract the serious attention of the public officials and other people actually involved in politics at any given time
people who invest their political "capital" in an issue; could be in or out of government, in elected or appointed politicians, in interest groups or research organizations
person on the White House staff who most often deals directly with the press, serving as a conduit of information; conducts daily press conferences
short video clips (15 sec) which are typically all that is shown from a politician's speech or activities on television news
form of propaganda; providing an interpretation of an event or political campaign to persuade public opinion in favor or against a certain organization or public figure
A primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote; encourages greater party loyalty
Congressional Campaign Committee
party of committee in Congress that provides funds to members and would be members
An electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. These periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era.
The national chairperson is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party and is usually handpicked by the presidential nominee.
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
New Deal Coalition
coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
A primary election in which voters may choose in which party to vote as they enter the polling place
the gradual disengagement of people and politicians from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking party identification.
Historical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a majority of the elections.
The voter's perception of what the Republicans or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism or liberalism
A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern.
a term used to describe the fact that many americans are indifferent toward the two major political parties
The formal structure and leadership of a political party, including election committees; local, state, and national executives; and paid professional staff.
Party in Electorate
Ordinary citizens who identify with the party. The people who elect the party into office. The citizens support the party's basic ideology and policy principles.
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support; key inducements used in Political Machines
A group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office.
An electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
Rational Choice Theory
A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives.
Responsible Party Model
A view favored by some political scientists about how parties should work. According to the model, parties should offer clear choices to the voters, who can then use those choices as cues to their own preferences of candidates. Once in office, parties would carry out their campaign promises.
Spin off Party
A new party formed by a dissident faction within a major political party; similar to "splinter party"
A new party formed by a dissident faction within a major political party; similar to "spin off party"
electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections.
Voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices. It has become the norm in American voting behavior.
Winner Take All System
an electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituencies. In US presidential elections, the system in which the winner of the popular vote in a state receives all the electoral votes of that state
Independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly advocate the election of a particular candidate.
Buckley v. Valeo
a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States upheld federal limits on campaign contributions and ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of constitutionally protected free speech. The court also stated candidates can give unlimited amounts of money to their own campaigns.
strategy to communicate a candidate's's platform and raise funds in order to win an elected position
A meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and to decide the platform.
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court holding that the First Amendment prohibits government from censoring political broadcasts in candidate elections when those broadcasts are funded by corporations or unions
The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president.
A high-tech method of raising money for a political cause or candidate. It involves sending information and requests for money to people whose names appear on lists of those who have supported similar views or candidates in the past.
where presidential candidates are selected and a separate slate of delegates is also voted on. New Hampshire uses this type of primary.
Federal Election Campaign Act
A law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.
Federal Election Commission
A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. The federal Election Commission administers and enforces campaign finance laws.(FEC)
The recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention
First state to hold a caucus or primary, therefore giving Iowa much attention during the campaign season.
Contributions of up to $250 matched from the presidential Election Campaign Fund to candidates for the presidential nomination who qualify and agree to meet various conditions, such as limiting their overall spending.
A commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation.
A proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries, which would replace these electoral methods with a nationwide primary held early in the election year.
A number of votes cast for a candidate that is greater than the number of votes for any other candidate but not necessarily a majority.
Presidential Election Campaign Fund
money from the $3 federal income tax check off to this fund; distributed to qualified candidates to subsidize their presidential campaign
An election in which a party's voters (1) choose State party organization's delegates to their party's national convention, and/or (2) express a preference for their party's presidential nomination
A proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries to replace these electoral methods with a series of primaries held in each geographic region.
The phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions.
Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
A Tuesday in early March in which many presidential primaries, particularly in the South, are held.
Party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses.
Tinker v. Des Moines
(Black Arm Bands) Schools can only limit student 1st Amendment free speech if it can be shown it causes a disturbance
Miami Herald Publishing Co. v Tornillo
Newspapers can be biased and unfairly represent one candidate more than another
Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. F.C.C.
Radios must give unbiased coverage, presenting both sides of issues
N.A.A.C.P. v. Alabama
(NAACP doesn't give up membership records) Right to assemble freely applied to state
Hernandez v. Texas
Mexican Americans and other racial minorities have equal protection. First case argued by Hispanic lawyers
Korematsu v. United States
Upheld internment camps for Japanese Americans. Rights can be restricted during wartime
Craig v. Boren
(Different ages to buy beer) Sex-descrimination must be related to achievement of important governmental objectives
Regents of University of California v. Bakke
Upheld affirmative action, race can be factor in college admissions, no quotas though
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
Racial classifications must be held to "strict standard" and be tailored to government interest.
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders.
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
A process permitted in some states whereby voters may put proposed changes in the state constitution to a vote if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a referendum.
The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment.
The belief that one's political participation really matters-that one's vote can actually make a difference.
A system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advance of election. A few states permit election day registration.
Motor Voter Act
Passed in 1993, this act went into effect for the 1996 election. It requires states to permit people to register to vote at the same time they apply for their driver's license.
Mandate Theory of Election
The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics. Politicians like the theory better than political scientists do.
Electoral choices that are made on basis of the voters' policy preferences and on the basis of where the candidates stand on policy issues.
A unique American institution, created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties. Although its vote usually reflects a popular majority, the winner-take-all rules give clout to big states.
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