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36 terms

AP Psychology Ch. 6 Vocab Quiz

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selective attention
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
inattentional blindness
Failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
cocktail party effect
Ability to attend to only one voice among many
Max Wertheirmer
Gestalt theory (see things as a whole)
Stroop task
A task in which the participant has to name the colours in which words are printed. (stroop effect)
visual capture
the tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
gestault
"an organized whole" or "configuration"
figure-ground
The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
grouping
the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups
proximity
Grouping nearby figures together.
similarity
Group similar figures together
continuity
We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones.
connectedness
Because they are uniform and linked, we perceive each set of two dots and the line between them as one unit
closure
Fill gaps to create whole objects
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
visual cliff
A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
binocular cues
Depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
retinal desparity
A binocluar cue for perceiving depth: By encompassing images from the two eybealls, the brain computes distance--the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
convergence
A binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object
monocular cues
Depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
relative size
if we assume that two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away
interposition
A depth cue in which one object partly covering another is assumed to be closer in distance.
relative clarity
because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp,clear objects
texture gradient
-A gradual change from a coarse, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance
relative height
We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away
relative motion (motion parallax)
as we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move
linear perspective
Parallel lines appear to converge with distance.
light and shadow
Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes. Dimmer objects seem farther away.
phi phenomenon
An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
perceptual constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
stroboscopic movement
Brain perceives continuous movement in a rapid series of slightly varying images
perceptual adaption
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
perceptual set
A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
human factors psychology
A branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use
ESP
Controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis