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32 terms

Chapter 5- States of Consciousness

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Consciousness
A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind.
Cognitive neuroscience
A field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain activity.
Nonconscious process
Any brain process that does not involve conscious processing, including both preconscious memories and unconscious processes.
Preconscious memories
Information that is not currently in consciousness but can be recalled to consciousness voluntarily or after something calls attention to them
Unconscious
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
Daydreaming
A common (and quite normal) variation of consciousness in which attention shifts to memories, expectations, desires, or fantasies and away from the immediate situation.
Circadian rhythms
The 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species.
REM sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active.
Non-REM sleep
Sleep stages 1 through 4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming, and varied EEG activity.
Sleep paralysis
The experience of waking up unable to move
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
Sleep debt
A sleep deficiency caused by not getting the amount of sleep that one requires for optimal functioning
Manifest content
According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
Latent content
According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
Activation-synthesis theory
Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity. Dreams make sense of this activity.
Insomnia
Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep
Sleep apnea
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
Night Terrors
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
Narcolepsy
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
Gataplexy
genetic basis for sleep apnea
Hypnosis
A social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Meditation
A family of mental exercises in which a conscious attempt is made to focus attention in a nonanalytical way.
Psychoactive drugs
Chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness
Hallucinogens
A diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience.
Opiates
A category of psychoactive drugs that are chemically similar to morphine and have strong pain-relieving properties.
Depressants
Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Stimulant
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Tolerance
A progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug.
Physical dependence
A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
Addiction
Compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences.
Withdrawal
A pattern of uncomfortable or painful physical symptoms and cravings experienced by the user when the level of drug is decreased or the drug is eliminated.
Psychological dependence
A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions