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53 terms

Organic Chemistry Part One: The Beginning Notes and Carbohydrates

STUDY
PLAY
branched chains
straight chains
double bonds
rings
Name the four types of carbon chains.
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids
Name the four main types of organic matter.
four
carbon has ____ valence electrons
functional groups
These determine the functions and properties of a certain molecule. they are groups of atoms that act together usually found at the end of a hydrocarbon chain. They are responsible for chemical reactions, because chemical reactions take place at the ends of molecules.
hydroxyl
carboxyl
carbonyl
amino
phosphate
name the 5 functional groups
alcohols and sugars
What are the classes of the functional group hydroxyl?
carboxylic acids
What is the class of the functional group carboxyl?
amines
What is the class of the functional group amino?
organic phosphates
What is the class of the functional group phosphate?
Aldehydes and Keytones
What are the classes of the functional group carbonyl?
macromolecules
What are really big molecules?
100,000 daltons
Macromolecules are molecules that weigh more than ___________________________.
polymers
monomers
Macromolecules are constructed of smaller molecules called ________________, which are subdivided into their basic units called ____________.
dehydration synthesis
condensation
This is the process in which monomers are joined to form polymers. Give both names.
dehydration synthesis
This is the anabolic process by which two molecules are chemically bonded through the use of enzymes and the loss of water.
hydrolysis
This is the process in which polymers are separated to form monomers.
hydrolysis
This is the catabolic process by which the bond between monomers are broken by an enzyme and the addition of water.
monosaccharides
1:2:1; this is the ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in what monomers?
glucose
fructose
galactose
Name the three types of monosaccarides.
plants
Glucose is the sugar found in ______________.
fruits
Fructose is the sugar found in _______________.
milk
Galactose is the sugar found in _______________.
C6H12O6
All monosaccarides have the formula of ____________ (don't worry about the subscripts).
structural isomers
These are compounds that have the same structural formulas but different arrangements of atoms.
monosaccarides
carbohydrates
Glucose, fructose, and galactose are different types of monomers called _____________ in the macromolecules __________________________.
carbohydrates
These are the functions of ____________:
- source of short term energy
- building blocks of polymers
- build structural material like cellulose
- tags that can help you identify a cell
polysaccharides
These are the polymers of carbohydrates.
cellulose
starch
glycogen
chitin
Name the 4 types of polysaccharides.
polysaccharide
carbohydrates
Cellulose is a _____________________ which is the polymer of ________________________.
polysacchaide
This is the polymer to which chitin belongs.
carbohydrates
Starches indirectly belong to the macromolecules _______________.
cellulose
This is a type of polysaccharide that is very sturdy and makes up the cell walls of plants.
starch
This is a type of polysaccharide that is a storage form of sugar in plants.
glycogen
This is a type of polysaccharide that is the storage form of glucose in animals.
chitin
This is a type of polysaccharide that is found in crawfish, crab, lobster, and even in spiders and other insects.
cellulose
These polysaccharides have three cells of chains, each chain connected by a hydrogen bond.
starch
These polysaccharides have a single chain.
glycogen
These polysaccharides have a branched chain.
starch
We eat this and our body breaks it down for energy.
cellulose
This keeps the colon clean.
glycogen
This is stored in the liver and muscles, and if you store too many, you gain weight.
hydroxyl
carbonyl
What are the functional groups found in carbohydrates?
monosaccharide
One could recognize this by one ring.
monosaccharides
This could be recognized by the 1:2:1 ratio
maltose
sucrose
galactose
Name the three types of disaccharides.
maltose
This is a disaccharide, a sugar found in beer and wine from fermenting. It is made of glucose and glucose.
sucrose
This is a disaccharide found in table sugar. It is made of glucose and fructose.
lactose
This is a disaccharide found in milk. It is made of glucose and galactose.
maltose
This is made of glucose and glucose.
sucrose
This is made of glucose and fructose.
lactose
This is made of glucose and galactose
C12H22O11
What is the chemical formula for disaccharides (don't worry about subscripts)?
disaccharide
You can recognize this by two rings. Or, you can count the Cs, Hs, and Os.