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Mr. Newheart Unit 3 test flashcards


Spanish and Natives children

Hernándo Cortés

Sailed for the Spanish, conquers the Aztecs, carried European diseases, white skin made Aztecs think he was a god


vast and wealthy empire, conquered by Cortes, diseases killed millions, built on top of lake

Christopher Columbus

1492 he sailed to the Americas. thought he was in India and call the people there Indians. Goal was to find trade route to India, sailed too far west, landed in New World


the forced labor of Natives, by Spanish

Montezuma II

Aztec leader

Francisco Pizarro

onquered Incan Empire, army of 200 men ambushed leader and kidnapped him. Demanded gold and silver, ended up killing leader and defeating Empire.

The Dutch in North America

found New Netherlands, claimed region along Hudson River. Formed Dutch West India Company, traded with Natives for fur.

New Netherland

area around Hudson River, driven out be English who renamed it New York.


first permanent English colony, coast of Virginia, more interested in gold at first so many died, eventually grew into strong colony after tobacco was discovered

The Pilgrims

founded Plymouth in Massachusetts, persecuted for religious beliefs, religious freedom. First Thanksgiving.

The Puritans

sought religious freedom, settled in Massachusetts Bay

The French and Indian War

Lasted 7 years, between British and French. Indians sided with French because they were kind to them.


Powhatan leader, tried hard to be more European, Europeans still cruel, go to war, he gets killed.

The joint-stock company

developed during 1600s, investors buy shares of stock in company, investors shared profits but also if failed investors only lost their share`


economic system based on private owner-ship and investment of resources for profit, governments were no longer only wealthy people

The Columbian Exchange

global transfer of food, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas


new economic policy, believed a country's power depended mainly on its wealth

New France

the land claimed by France in North America


started by Samuel Champlain


colony started by Cartier, was the main french trade center for fur

The middle passage

the part of the triangular trade network where Africans were brought to the Americas as slaves

The triangular trade system

Goods transfered from Europe to Africa, where goods were exchanged for slaves, slaves then brought to the Americas where they produce other goods, which are then brought back to Europe

Favorable balance of trade

sells more goods than it bought, ultimate goal to become self sufficient

The slave trade in Africa

Much less cruel than the European slave trade. People treated better and families were not forced to work

African and Muslim societies

slavery existed in Africa for a long time, Muslim rulers believed they could have slaves, slaves still had rights

Bartolemé de Las Casas

Indians loved him, called him "Pope" Suggested using Africans as slaves instead of Indians

What was the general pattern of conquest and settlement followed by the Spanish in the Americas?

colonize with Spaniards

How were the French, Dutch, and English interests and activities in North America similar and how were they different?

French- did not colonize- fur trade, accept indians, purpose- to amass wealth for country
Dutch- did not colonize- fur trade, encourage Europeans to colonize, accept indians, purpose- to amass wealth for country
English- colonize, sought religious freedom, purpose- to amass wealth for country

What effects did the establishment of colonial empires in the Americas and the dramatic increase in overseas trade and the world's wealth have on Europe?

created companies- merchants became wealth
cheaper goods
abundance of new materials
introduced new goods
expanded trade

How did slavery in the Americas differ from slavery in most African and Muslim societies?

Slavery in the Americas was much more cruel, children could be slaves, were not prisoners of war, could not eventually free yourself.

What enabled the Spanish forces to conquer the Aztec people?

joining mutual enemies
superior weaponry
saw Cortez as a God- submitted

Why did the trade in African slaves increase dramatically in the seventh century?

Muslims came into Africa
Koran allowed for slavery of POW's
Koran stated they had to be treated humanely

What was mercantilism? How and why did it encourage European colonization of the Americas?

a nations wealth is measured by the amount of goods and resources

bring stuff back from the Americas
expand empires
and through that...gain more power for their nation

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