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34 terms

Unit 3 Test, Mr. Newheart

Mr. Newheart Unit 3 test flashcards
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Mestizos
Spanish and Natives children
Hernándo Cortés
Sailed for the Spanish, conquers the Aztecs, carried European diseases, white skin made Aztecs think he was a god
Aztec
vast and wealthy empire, conquered by Cortes, diseases killed millions, built on top of lake
Christopher Columbus
1492 he sailed to the Americas. thought he was in India and call the people there Indians. Goal was to find trade route to India, sailed too far west, landed in New World
Encomiendas
the forced labor of Natives, by Spanish
Montezuma II
Aztec leader
Francisco Pizarro
onquered Incan Empire, army of 200 men ambushed leader and kidnapped him. Demanded gold and silver, ended up killing leader and defeating Empire.
The Dutch in North America
found New Netherlands, claimed region along Hudson River. Formed Dutch West India Company, traded with Natives for fur.
New Netherland
area around Hudson River, driven out be English who renamed it New York.
Jamestown
first permanent English colony, coast of Virginia, more interested in gold at first so many died, eventually grew into strong colony after tobacco was discovered
The Pilgrims
founded Plymouth in Massachusetts, persecuted for religious beliefs, religious freedom. First Thanksgiving.
The Puritans
sought religious freedom, settled in Massachusetts Bay
The French and Indian War
Lasted 7 years, between British and French. Indians sided with French because they were kind to them.
Metacom
Powhatan leader, tried hard to be more European, Europeans still cruel, go to war, he gets killed.
The joint-stock company
developed during 1600s, investors buy shares of stock in company, investors shared profits but also if failed investors only lost their share`
Capitalism
economic system based on private owner-ship and investment of resources for profit, governments were no longer only wealthy people
The Columbian Exchange
global transfer of food, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas
Mercantilism
new economic policy, believed a country's power depended mainly on its wealth
New France
the land claimed by France in North America
Quebec
started by Samuel Champlain
Montreal
colony started by Cartier, was the main french trade center for fur
The middle passage
the part of the triangular trade network where Africans were brought to the Americas as slaves
The triangular trade system
Goods transfered from Europe to Africa, where goods were exchanged for slaves, slaves then brought to the Americas where they produce other goods, which are then brought back to Europe
Favorable balance of trade
sells more goods than it bought, ultimate goal to become self sufficient
The slave trade in Africa
Much less cruel than the European slave trade. People treated better and families were not forced to work
African and Muslim societies
slavery existed in Africa for a long time, Muslim rulers believed they could have slaves, slaves still had rights
Bartolemé de Las Casas
Indians loved him, called him "Pope" Suggested using Africans as slaves instead of Indians
What was the general pattern of conquest and settlement followed by the Spanish in the Americas?
explore
conquer
enslave
econmienda
colonize with Spaniards
How were the French, Dutch, and English interests and activities in North America similar and how were they different?
French- did not colonize- fur trade, accept indians, purpose- to amass wealth for country
Dutch- did not colonize- fur trade, encourage Europeans to colonize, accept indians, purpose- to amass wealth for country
English- colonize, sought religious freedom, purpose- to amass wealth for country
What effects did the establishment of colonial empires in the Americas and the dramatic increase in overseas trade and the world's wealth have on Europe?
created companies- merchants became wealth
cheaper goods
abundance of new materials
introduced new goods
expanded trade
How did slavery in the Americas differ from slavery in most African and Muslim societies?
Slavery in the Americas was much more cruel, children could be slaves, were not prisoners of war, could not eventually free yourself.
What enabled the Spanish forces to conquer the Aztec people?
joining mutual enemies
superior weaponry
disease
saw Cortez as a God- submitted
Why did the trade in African slaves increase dramatically in the seventh century?
Muslims came into Africa
Koran allowed for slavery of POW's
Koran stated they had to be treated humanely
What was mercantilism? How and why did it encourage European colonization of the Americas?
a nations wealth is measured by the amount of goods and resources

bring stuff back from the Americas
expand empires
and through that...gain more power for their nation