Terms in this set (103)

About 90% of cases, results from complex web of behavioral, hereditary, and other factors difficult to sort, called essential hypertension because so common with aging, chief culprit is obesity, each pound of extra fat requires additional vessels to serve, this added length increases peripheral resistance and BP, also increases workload on heart with added weight, also sedentary behavior is culprit, aerobic exercise helps reduce this by controlling weight, reducing emotional tension, and stim vasodilation, diet high in cholesterol and sat fat contribute to atherosclerosis, K and Mg reduce BP, salt relationship controversial the kidneys compensate so effectively for excess salt intake that dietary salt has little effect on BP but my help control in older people and people with reduced renal function, nicotine stimulates myocardium to beat faster and harder while stim vasoconstriction and increases afterload against which the myocardium must work, when heart needs extra oxygen nicotine causes coronary vasoconstriction and promotes myocardial ischemia, hypertension runs in families, higher in blacks also strokes, more common in men 18-54, above 65 more common in women, treatments include weight loss, diet, certain drugs, diuretics low BV and BP by promoting urination, ACE inhibitors block the formation of the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II, beta-blockers such as propranolol block the vasoconstrictive action of the SNS, Ca channel blockers like verapamil and nifedipine inhibit inflow of Ca into cardiac and smooth muscle thus inhibiting their contraction, promoting vasodilation, and reducing cardiac workload,