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AP Human Unit 6 Vocab
Copeland not all most of them pretty self explanatory words
Terms in this set (125)
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
The communication of specific plans, designs, or educational programs necessary for the use of new technologies from one society or class to another.
The savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores
aluminum industry factors of production
assembly line production
system of workers and machinery in which a product is assembled in a series of consecutive operations; typically the product is attached to a continuously moving belt
system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford
big rent theory
a geographical theory that refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD...
Canadian industrial heartland
Canada has a sizable manufacturing sector, centred in Central Canada, with the automobile industry especially important.
refers to the positive or negative aspects of each type of transportation
The ability of a country to produce a good at a lower cost than another country can.
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry
primary (taking raw materials from earth - agriculture, mining), secondary (manufacturing - textile or auto industries), tertiary (providing goods or services)
economics of scale
factors that cause a producer's average cost per unit to fall as output rises
A form of tourism that supports the conservation and sustainable development of ecologically unique areas
Natural resources that can be converted into energy
export processing zone
areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries
Costs that do not vary with the quantity of output produced
South Korea (largest), Taiwan (moving towards high tech), Singapore (Center for information and technology), Hong Kong(Break of Bulk Point): Because of their booming economies.
economic development, or growth, is not uniform over an entire region, but instead takes place around a specific pole.
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
industrial location theory
Alfred Weber, the selection of optimal factory locations has much to do with the minimization of land, labor, resource, and transportation costs, variable-cost framework that affects location of factory sites
Industry becoming less know as it is no longer in demand
The place in which the production and manufacturing of goods is exported.
The tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs.
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart
just in time delivery
reliably getting products there just before the customer needs them
an economy with less emphasis on heavy industry and manufacturing and more emphasis on services and technology
A crisis in which needed resources are not available to the consumers that need them.
tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources
special economic zone (China)
In 1979, the Chinese government set up these zones on the coast near Macao, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Improved transportation, lower taxes, and other incentives attracted investments from foreign businesses. They helped stimulate innovation and helped China grow economically.
Principle that maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location.
time space compression
through processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced
The deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change, so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed.
two regions (through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products) can satisfy each other's needs (U.S. and Canada)
German geographer who was a major theorists of industrial location. He devised a model of how to understand industrial locations in regard to several factors, including labor supply, markets, resource location, and transpiration.
Squatter settlements found in the periphery of Latin American cities.
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
Central Business District (CBD) is the commercial (and sometimes cultural) heart of a city. It is dominated shops and offices many of which are found in tall skyscrapers.
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract produce and consumers to its facilities; a city's "reach" into the surrounding region
Degree to which decision-making authority is restricted to higher levels of management in an organization.
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Central Place Theory
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
similar to a landscape, yet of a city (cityscapes often show the city's skyline, which is the CBD).
City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.
Introducing a new product into the market
the outer most zone of the Concentric Zone Model that represents people who choose to live in residential suburbia and take a daily commute in the CBD to work.
concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries
Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.
Cities of the ancient world—mostly based on agriculture and subsistence farming; basically the urban hearths of the world (i.e. Mesoamerica, Indus River Valley).
economic base basic
A community's collection of basic industries. Basic sector: activities and services that generate income for a city. Non-basic: work responsible for the functioning of the city itself.
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
City currently without much population but increasing in size at a fast rate
An area within a city containing members of the same ethnic background.
a slum community in a Brazilian city
Number of people employed with both basic and nonbasic jobs
a household dominated by a woman
space within an urban environment that can accommodate a large number of people
a city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation.
In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area
A poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
a city with a population of more then 1 million
an area along a limited-access highway that houses offices and other services associated with high-tech industries
The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves.
a civilization based on large-scale irrigation systems as the prime mover behind urbanization and a class of technical specialists as the first urban dwellers. Cairo
a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
new building on empty parcels of land within a checkerboard pattern of development
the portion of an economy largely outside government control in which employees work without contracts or benefits
the older and more populated and (usually) poorer central section of a city
invasion and succession
Process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups.
commuting that occurs between suburban areas rather than towards the central city.
Cities that developed in Europe during the Medieval Period and that contain such unique features as extreme density of development with narrow buildings and winding streets, an ornate church that prominently marks the city center, and high walls surrounding the city center that provided defense against attack.
Cities with more than 10 million people
An extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
A major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
A small section of a community, town or city where people live.
A cluster of office bulidings, usually located along an interstate, often forming the nucleus of an edge city
peak land value intersection
The region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links such as roads and rail
cities built to a definite plan
post industrial city
A city where manufacturing has declined and the focus of the city is service industries.
postmodern urban landscape
attempts to reconnect people to place through its architecture, the preservation of historical buildings, the re-emergence of mixed land uses and connections among developments
a city that ranks first in a nation in terms of population and economy
real estate agents advising customers to purchase homes in neighborhoods depending on their race
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
A statement written into a property deed that restricts the use of the land in some way; often used to prohibit certain groups of people from buying property
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
The separation of or isolation of a race, class, or ethnic group from the rest of society.
a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings
Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area.
mercantile establishment consisting of a carefully landscaped complex of shops representing leading merchandisers
TO DECREASE OR FALL SUDDENLY AND MARKEDLY, AS PRICES OR THE MARKET
A pattern of organized relationships among groups of people within a society
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
A network of lines that cross each other to form a series of squares or rectangles.
A residential district located on the outskirts of a city
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
landscapes that express values, beliefs, and meanings of a particular culture.
A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
the condition when people work at jobs for which they are overqualified or that do not utilize their skills
urban growth rate
Rate of growth of an urban population. Compare degree of urbanization.
Services that are provided in a certain metropolitan area
urban hearth area
An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile River Valley where large cities first existed.
urban heat island
Local heat buildup in an area of high population density
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
Changes in water drainage patterns that occur in urban areas. Roads and artificial surfaces cut down infiltration and storage while storm sewers speed up the flow of water into rivers. It is suggested that urbanization increases the risk of flooding as rivers respond much more violently to a storm event.
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places
An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
the proportion of a country's population living in cities
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transition
An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
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